When I think about construction play--kids making structures with wooden blocks, Lego® bricks, Mega Bloks®, Lincoln Logs®, or recycled materials--I usually imagine kids being inventive, experimenting, and designing their own creations.
That sort of play is exciting to watch, and doubtless beneficial to children’s developing minds. As I explain elsewhere, block play may foster creative problem solving and enhance a child’s spatial skills.
But there is another way to play with blocks, and it might be an especially effective way to boost spatial skills and mathematics ability. Structured block play is what happens when a child tries to recreate a construction by consulting a model or blueprint. It’s more constrained, but it calls on a particular skill set that is crucial for many tasks.
Kids must analyze what they see, perceive the parts that make up the whole, and figure out how the parts relate to each other. To be really successful, kids also need to think quantitatively, and be able to rotate geometric shapes in the mind’s eye (Casey and Bobb 2003).
For instance, suppose I present a young child with some plastic, Lego-like bricks and ask her to reproduce this design:
It seems simple, but consider what she’s got to do.
When Brian Verdine and his colleagues (2013) tested more than 100 three-year-olds with a model like this, only 40% of the children were able to match the design perfectly. For other, more complex patterns, the completion rate was under 10%. This one wasn’t mastered by any child:
Why? The three-year-old brain exerts less executive control, and has less working memory capacity – which means kids find it harder to keep track of several different things simultaneously.
In Verdine’s experiment, kids made more errors when there were more bricks, and more errors when getting the right answer meant positioning bricks in more than one direction. In addition, many kids didn’t seem to recognize the importance of counting pips to figure out if the bricks were aligned properly. This might reflect the fact that preschoolers have trouble thinking about an object in multiple ways at once--for instance, thinking of a brick as both a building unit and as something that can be subdivided into several smaller units (Diamond et al 2010).
So it’s hardly surprising that young children don’t perform on these tasks as well as adults do. Their brains are still developing. But performance isn’t merely a question of age. It also depends on experience.
An array of evidence indicates that spatial skills can be improved through play. Some experimental studies have focused on the benefits of playing certain video games. Other research has uncovered links between spatial intelligence and experience with “spatial” toys.
In one observational study, kids who spent more free time doing puzzles scored higher on tests of spatial ability (Levine et al 2012). Another study found that boys outperformed girls in spatial tasks, but only among children from middle- and higher-socioeconomic backgrounds (Levine et al 2005). Among kids from low income homes – where opportunities for construction play may be more limited – there was no sex difference. Researchers speculate that high income boys have the dual advantage of (1) better access to expensive construction toys, and (2) more encouragement to play with such toys.
There is also the testimonial evidence of adult scientists and engineers. Engineers frequently say construction toys inspired their careers. “Legos are a good introduction to communicating ideas with physical objects,” notes Tiffany Tseng, an engineer in the MIT Media Lab. “Putting things together and taking them apart got me interested in how things work, and by the time I was an undergraduate, I knew I wanted to be an engineer.”
Given all the Lego metaphors used in scientific research – on topics ranging from nanoparticles to synthetic biology—it seems likely that construction toys have inspired people in many other fields too. In fact, building things for fun seems to be intimately connected with real-world achievement.
In a recent American survey of high-achieving college graduates, adults holding degrees in STEM fields (science, technology, engineering, or mathematics) were “far more likely than the average American” to have extensive experience with “hands-on” crafts and hobbies, including woodwork, mechanics, and electronics. Individuals reporting a lifelong participation in such activities were more likely to have produced inventions that yielded patents (LaMore et al 2013).
But correlations don’t prove causation. Kids with strong spatial skills are probably more attracted to toys and pastimes that involve construction, analysis, and blueprints. That doesn’t mean that structured block play causes intellectual improvements. What’s needed is experimental evidence, and two studies provide some.
The first study, published in 2008, suggests that you can boost kindergarteners’ scores on the spatial portion of an IQ test (the WISC-IV) by having them build specific structures--likes walls of a certain height--with blocks (Casey et al 2008). The second, a study presented at a conference in 2013, suggests that a regular diet of structured block play might have wide range of benefits (Grissmer et al 2013).
Working with kindergarteners and first graders from North Carolina, David Grissmer and his colleagues assigned 45 children to an after-school program of building activities. Students were asked to copy designs made from a variety of materials--including Legos, Wikki Stix, and pattern blocks--and then tracked alongside a control group of kids enrolled in an after-school curriculum that lacked such elements. After 28 weeks of daily play sessions, the kids in the construction classes made substantial gains in mathematics ability, spatial reasoning, and executive control.
The results dovetail with observations made by Brian Verdine and his colleagues. Kids who did the best job building from models weren’t just good spatial thinkers. They were also the most proficient in math (Verdine et al 2013). Likewise, a small, long-term study reported correlations between Lego building skills in preschool and high school mathematics achievement (Wolfgang et al 2003).
Case closed? We’re a long way from establishing that
structured block play has a systematic effect on spatial intelligence and
mathematics achievement. Very few controlled studies have been done. We need
more research. But in the mean time, there is a lot to recommend the idea. It
makes sense that copying models would improve a child’s ability to analyze
spatial relationships. We learn by doing. And so far, the empirical evidence
points in the right direction. If you are going to spend money on toys, construction toys seem like a wise investment.
Construction play has been linked with other benefits besides math and spatial skills. To read more about it, see my article about toy blocks.
Got a child in elementary or secondary school? For a great collection of stimulating construction activities, I recommend Carol Johman's excellent book:
And for more information about honing your child's spatial skills, see this list of evidence-based tips.
References: Legos, construction toys, and the benefits of structured block play
Diamond A, Carlson SM, and Beck DM. 2010. Preschool children's performance in task switching on the dimensional change card sort task: separating the dimensions aids the ability to switch. Dev Neuropsychol. 28(2):689-729.
Grissmer DW, Mashburn AJ, Cottone AJ, Chen WB, Brock LL, and Murrah WM, et al. 2013. Play-based after-school curriculum improves measures of visuospatial and math skills and classroom behavior for high-risk K-1 children. Paper presented at the Society for Research in Child Development, Seattle, Washington, April 2013.
LaMore R, Root-Bernstein R, Schweitzer JH, Lawton JL, Roraback E, et al. 2013. Arts and Crafts: Critical to Economic Innovation Economic Development Quarterly 27(3): 221-22.
Levine SC, Vasilyeva M, Lourenco SF, Newcombe NS, and Huttenlocher J. 2005. Socioeconomic status modifies the sex difference in spatial skill. Psychol Sci. 16(11):841-5.
Levine SC, Ratliff KR, Huttenlocher J, and Cannon J. 2012. Early puzzle play: a predictor of preschoolers' spatial transformation skill. Dev Psychol. 48(2):530-42.
Verdine BN, Golinkoff RM, Hirsh-Pasek K, Newcombe NS, Filipowicz AT, Chang A. 2013. Deconstructing Building Blocks: Preschoolers' Spatial Assembly Performance Relates to Early Mathematical Skills. Child Dev. 2013 Sep 23. doi: 10.1111/cdev.12165. [Epub ahead of print]
Wolfgang S, Stannard L, and Jones I. 2003. Advanced constructional play with LEGOs among preschoolers as a predictor of later school achievement in mathematics Early Child Development and Care 173 (5): 67-475
image of alternating staircase made from toy blocks by Diomidis SpinellisContent last modified 12/13