The science of attachment parenting
© 2008 - 2014 Gwen Dewar, Ph.D., all rights reserved
"Attachment parenting" is an approach to child-rearing intended to forge
strong, secure attachments
between parents and children.
For many parents, this approach feels intuitive. And anthropological
research suggests that some attachment parenting practices--such as
baby-wearing and co-sleeping--have deep roots in our evolutionary past
But does it really make a difference?
Not surprisingly, it depends on how you define your terms.
I ignore politics, and various
romantic or religious notions about "natural" parenting.
I review the scientific research that supports physical closeness,
sensitivity, and responsiveness in parents. For information about books,
websites, and organizations that offer support to parents committed to
What attachment parents do
Attachment parenting is associated with a number of practices, including
- Baby-carrying or "baby-wearing"
- Breastfeeding on cue
- Nurturing touch (including skin-to-skin "kangaroo care" for infants)
- Being responsive to a baby's cries
Being sensitive and responsive to a child's emotions (e.g., by helping him or her cope with nighttime fears)
In addition, care-givers attempt handle misbehavior through emotion coaching, reasoning, and constructive problem solving.
But William and Martha Sears, who coined the term "attachment parenting"--note that there is no checklist of rules that parents must follow (Sears and Sears 2001).
Family circumstances may prevent parents from carrying out every attachment parenting practice. What's important, argues these authors, is that parents strive to be sensitive and responsive --addressing children's true needs in an affectionate way.
This is not the same as being overly-protective. By definition, securely-attached kids are not overly clingy or helpless. They are the kids who feel confident to explore the world on their own. They can do this because they trust that their parents will be there for them (Mercer 2006).
The scientific case for attachment parenting
Advocates of attachment parenting make two major claims:
1. sensitive, responsive parenting leads kids to form secure attachments, and
2. securely-attached kids are healthier and happier
writers have attempted to support these claims with studies of
extremely deprived infants (both human and nonhuman). For instance,
research demonstrates that kids who are terribly neglected and
abused—like children raised in the infamous Romanian orphanages—suffer
neurocognitive impairment and socio-emotional problems (Chugani et al
While such research confirms that chronic stress and
trauma are bad for the brain, it's a stretch to cite these studies as
proof that attachment parenting is superior to "mainstream" Western
parenting. As a result, some critics have argued that the attachment
parenting movement is based on overblown or fallacious claims (Hayes
1998; Warner 2006).
This is unfortunate, because there is a lot of
scientific evidence supporting the idea that secure attachments and
attachment parenting practices benefit kids. Here's a sample.
Links between attachment parenting practices and secure attachment
Several aspects of responsive parenting have been associated with the development of secure attachments.
High-quality communication. A study of Dogon mothers in Mali found that
the quality of communication between mother and infant was associated
with more secure attachment relationships (True et al 2001).
Maternal sensitivity during infant play. A study of premature infants
reports that infants whose mothers were unresponsive or more controlling
during playtime were more likely to be insecurely attached (Fuertes et
al 2006). Securely-attached infants were more likely to have mothers who
were sensitive to their childrens' interests and needs (Fuertes et al
Insight into a child's mental and
emotional states. A study of mothers and their 12 month old infants
reports that mothers who showed greater insight about their babies' psychological experiences were rated as more sensitive and were more
likely to have securely-attached infants (Koren-Karie 2002). Another
study reports that mothers who showed a more accurate understanding of
their infants' mental states at 6 months were more likely to have
securely-attached infants at 12 months (Meins et al 2001). Read more about these links here.
Sensitivity to an infant's distress. A study analyzing data
collected by National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
(NICHD) reports that American mothers who showed greater sensitivity to
their infants' distress at 6 months were more likely to have securely
attached toddlers at 15 months (McElwain and Booth-Laforce 2006). By contrast, infants are more likely to develop insecure attachments when mothers "close up their faces" -- looking away from the baby, and failing to respond with sympathetic facial expressions (Beebe and Steele 2013).
Baby-wearing. An experimental study randomly assigned American mothers
of low socioeconomic status to either wear their newborns in soft baby
carriers or to carry their babies in portable infant seats. At 13
months, babies in the soft-carrier group were more likely to be
securely-attached to their mothers (Anisfeld et al 1990).
Emotional availability. Research suggests a link between secure
attachment and emotional availability—being open to discuss emotions,
and being ready to respond sensitively and appropriately to the emotions
of others (Easterbrooks et al 2000). An Israeli study observed mothers
interacting with their infants and found that moms rated as more
emotionally available were more likely to have securely attached
children (Ziv et al 2000).
How secure attachments and responsive parenting practices benefit children
Secure attachments and responsive parenting promote independence
As noted above, securely-attached children are more likely to explore on their own (Mercer 2006). In addition, infants are less likely to develop fearful tendencies if their mothers show higher levels of emotional sensitivity and responsiveness during parent-child interactions (Gartstein et al 2017).
Secure attachments and emotionally supportive parenting promotes better child moods and socio-emotional development.
When researchers tracked 45 mother-child pairs from
infancy to age 7, they found that infants who were securely-attached
during infancy were more likely to demonstrate emotional availability at
age 7 (Easterbrooks et al 2000).
Why? Secure attachments may be intrinsically helpful, but it's also likely that specific parenting characteristics play a role.
For instance, in a study of American children (aged 9-11 years), researchers found that kids with secure
attachment relationships--and greater levels of maternal support--showed "higher levels of positive mood, more constructive coping, and better
regulation of emotion in the classroom." (Kerns et al 2007).
Another study found that parents who were responsive to their children's distress had kids who were better at regulating their own, negative emotions. In addition, children showed an improved ability to regulate their positive emotions if their mothers showed higher levels of warmth (Davidov and Grusec 1996).
Warm, flexible, sensitive communication contributes to a child's moral development
Do attachment parenting behaviors promote cooperation and moral reasoning? There's reason to think so. In a study that followed children throughout early childhood, toddlers who engaged in mutually responsive,
positive interactions with their mothers had more developed consciences when they reach school
age. These children were also more likely to comply with adult instructions (Kochanska and Murray 2000).
And research has found links between responsive parenting and empathy. Kids with more responsive mothers tend to show more empathy and prosocial
behavior towards others (Davidov and Grusec 1996).
Is it the communication that really matters in these cases? Or are the links simply a reflection of something else -- like a shared genetic tendency to be sensitive and cooperative?
As with all developmental phenomenon, a child's moral reasoning is affected by an interaction of genetic and environmental influences. But research supports our intuitions on this point: Kids are affected by our behavior, and benefit when we tailor our responses to fit their personalities.
For instance, in a study tracking children from the age of two, researchers noticed that sensitive mothers used different tactics depending on their children's temperaments, and these adjustments predicted higher levels of moral reasoning at age five.
In particular, children with exuberant, outgoing temperaments turned out better if their mothers responded to toddler misbehavior by using redirection and distraction. These kids also responded well to gentle but firm prohibitions about what they shouldn't do. Reasoning with them was less effective.
By contrast, the use of commands was unhelpful for children with fearful or inhibited temperaments. They responded better to reasoning (Augustine and Stifter 2015).
Results like these underscore why it's counter-productive to re-define attachment parenting as a set of required practices. In its original formulation, "attachment parenting" was another name for being sensitive and responsive. Not every child needs the same thing, and there is often more than one way to solve a problem.
Attachment parenting practices buffer children from the effects of toxic stress
As I note in this article about stress in babies, there is a lot we can do to keep babies calm and happy. It's true for older children too. But do these things make a big difference? I think they so, particularly for children who are very sensitive, emotionally reactive, anxious, or exposed to high levels of environmental stress.
For example, there is compelling evidence that skin-to-skin contact benefits young infants.
In one study comparing two groups of preterm infants, researchers found that children who'd received skin-to-skin contact in the first weeks postpartum had developed, by age 10, more healthy stress response systems, improved sleep patterns, and better cognitive control (Feldman et al 2014).
In another recent study, newborns at high risk for developing abnormal stress responses showed no evidence of such problems at 7 months -- not if their mothers reported giving their babies lots of caresses (Sharp et al 2012).
Co-sleeping may also reduce stress. Researchers have reported that British children (aged 3-8) who slept in
their parents’ rooms showed lower daily levels of the stress hormone
cortisol (Waynforth 2007). In a study of Dutch infants, co-sleeping babies experienced lower spikes in the stress hormone cortisol when they were subjected to psychologically distressing situations (Beijers et al 2013). And an experiment testing newborns' responses to bathing found that, compared to co-sleepers, babies who slept alone experienced sharper spikes in cortisol levels (Tollenaar et al 2012).
But perhaps the most dramatic evidence comes from research that measures emotional sensitivity and responsiveness. As I note in this article, people who grow up in poverty experience high levels of stress, and may therefore be at high risk of developing stress-related diseases, atherosclerosis, autoimmune disorders, and cancer. But studies suggest that kids who have highly nurturing parents are protected from these risks.
The advantage may begin early in life. One study reports that infants of more sensitive mothers had lower baseline
levels of the stress hormone cortisol (Blair et al 2006). Other research, which I discuss in this blog post, suggests that babies with "difficult" temperaments may turn into particularly well-adjusted kids if they receive warm, sensitive parenting (Stright et al 2008; Pluess and Belsky 2010).
And recently, researchers have found evidence that warm, sensitive parenting
protects young children from brain-shrinking stress. Joan Luby and her colleagues
found that poverty-stressed kids with warm, positive, emotionally-supportive
parents had better brain development. Unlike peers with less sensitive parents,
these kids developed normal-sized hippocampi and amygdale—brain structures that
play a key role in spatial learning, memory consolidation, stress reactivity,
and the processing of emotion (Luby et al 2013).
Finally, positive discipline may help kids
cope better with stress. One study of kids living in highly-stressed
urban settings found that parents who identified themselves as
practitioners of positive discipline were more likely to have children
who were stress-resilient (Wyman et al 1991).
Sensitive, responsive care reduces behavior problems
Observational studies show that securely-attached children are less likely to develop behavior problems (Madigan et al 2015). But this link reflects, in part, the fact that some kids suffer from conditions that put them at higher risk for both behavior problems and difficulties forming attachment relationships. As a result, such studies can't tell us how much of the link is caused by parenting practices.
Likewise, research indicates that children have better outcomes when they receive sensitive, responsive parenting. For instance, a longitudinal study tracking the development of 544 babies found that
children with more sensitive mothers were less likely to experience
executive function problems (including problems with attention, focus,
and impulse control) when they were four years old (Kok et al 2013). But maternal sensitivity is partly influenced by genes (Cents et al 2014), so we must consider the possibility that children with insensitive mothers are more likely to inherit genes that increase their risk for executive function problems.
How can we pin down causation? Controlled experiments can help clarify matters, and support the idea that our sensitive, responsive parenting prevents behavior problems.
For example, one experimental study reports that children living in stressed families (characterized by
marital conflict and frequent daily hassles) showed fewer overactive
problem behaviors if their parents had been trained in positive
parenting and sensitive discipline techniques (van Zeijl et al 2006).
Another controlled study reported a "strong decrease in child conduct problems" after parents were coached in positive parenting tactics (Stattin et al 2015). A study of foster children found these kids developed better cognitive flexibility and perspective-taking skills if their caregivers had been trained to "follow the child's lead" by delivering sensitive, responsive, nurturing care (Lewis-Morrarty 2013). And when researchers taught parents how to improve their emotional coaching skills, kids experienced fewer behavior problems at school (Havighurst et al 2013).
Breastfeeding is associated with fewer infections and allergies
Breastfeeding, particularly long-term or extended breastfeeding,
appears to protect children from infections and the development of
allergies. A recent study of Qatari children reports that children
breastfed for more than 6 months had a reduced risk of allergic diseases
and ear infections than kids who were breastfed for less than 6 months
(Bener et al 2007).
Similar results have been reported in a variety of international studies of breastfeeding (Kramer and Kakuma 2006; Minitti et al 2014).
Attachment parenting practices are associated with higher IQ and academic performance
You might have heard that breastfeeding boosts a child’s IQ-—if, like
90% of the population, he carries the FADS2 gene (Caspi et al 2007).
That result wasn't replicated by a subsequent study, so the jury is still out (Steer et al 2010).
One possibility is that breastfeeding is really just a marker of other parental behaviors and favorable environmental factors. For instance, breast-feeding mothers tend to be better educated and more affluent. Another possibility it's really the content of breast milk that matters -- that milk with higher levels of DHA fatty acid (docosahexaenoic acid) is responsible for the link (Bernard et al 2017).
But while we wait for more research to clear these matters up, there are hints that other attachment parenting practices are linked with higher intellectual achievement.
For example, a British study of 36 middle-class
mothers and their three-year-olds found that securely-attached children
scored 12 points higher on the Stanford-Binet intelligence test than did
insecurely attached children (Crandell and Hobson 1999).
study tracking 108 French-Canadian children found that kids who were
securely-attached at age 6 scored higher on communication, cognitive
engagement, and motivation to master new skills at age 8 (Moss et al
Of course, correlation doesn't prove causation. It might be that smarter kids have an easier time forming secure attachments.
there are also experimental studies reporting a more direct link between responsive
parenting and cognitive development. In these experiments, some mothers
were randomly assigned to receive training in responsive parenting
techniques. The infants of trained mothers showed greater growth in
cognitive skills than did the infants of control moms (Landry et al
Unproven claims and unanswered questions
Baby-wearing and crying
As noted above, baby-wearing may be associated with higher rates of secure attachment. It also may help prevent plagiocephaly, the flattening of the back of the head caused by leaving babies on their backs for extended periods (Littlefield 2003).
But does baby-wearing reduce crying?
Intuitively, it seems that it should. However, with the exception of one study conducted in 1986 (Hunziger and Barr 1986), there isn’t much scientific evidence to support the idea. For example, a 1995 study reports that “supplemental carrying" of infants had little effect on crying rates (St James-Roberts et al 1995). Possibly, results depend on the temperament of the individual infant. For an overview of research about crying, see this Parenting Science guide.
"Mind-mindedness"...the crucial factor?
"Mind-minded" parents treat their children--no matter how young-- as individuals with minds, feelings, thoughts, and beliefs of their own.
Psychologist Elizabeth Meins and her colleagues have shown that mind-minded parenting is linked with with the development of stronger empathy and perspective-taking skills in children.
It's also linked with more secure attachment relationships. In one longitudinal study, mind-minded parenting at 6 months was correlated with more secure attachments at 12 months. Indeed, mind-minded parenting was a better predictor of secure attachment than were any other variables, including "responsive, sensitive parenting" (Meins et al 2001).
This makes me wonder. Is mind-mindedness the true foundation of attachment parenting? For more information, check out this article.
References: Attachment parenting
Anisfeld E, Casper V, Nozyce M, and Cunningham N. 1990. Does infant
carrying promote attachment? An experimental study of the effects of
increased physical contact on the development of attachment. Child Dev.
Augustine ME and Stifter CA. 2015. Temperament, Parenting,
and Moral Development: Specificity of Behavior and Context. Soc Dev. 24(2):285-303.
Beebe B and Steele M. 2013. How does microanalysis of
mother-infant communication inform maternal sensitivity and infant attachment? Attach
Hum Dev. 15(5-6):583-602.
Beijers R, Riksen-Walraven JM, and de Weerth C. 2012. Cortisol regulation in 12-month-old human infants: associations with the infants' early history of breastfeeding and co-sleeping. Stress. 16(3):267-77.
Bener A, Ehlayel MS, Alsowaidi S, and
Sabbah A. 2007. Role of breast feeding in primary prevention of asthma
and allergic diseases in a traditional society. Eur Ann Allergy Clin
Bernard JY, Armand M, Peyre H, Garcia C, Forhan A, De
Agostini M, Charles MA, Heude B; EDEN Mother-Child Cohort Study Group (Etude
des Déterminants pré- et postnatals précoces du développement et de la santé de
l'Enfant). 2017. Breastfeeding, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Levels in Colostrum
and Child Intelligence Quotient at Age 5-6 Years. J Pediatr. 183:43-50.e3.
Blair C, Granger D, Willoughby M,
and Kivlighan K. 2006. Maternal sensitivity is related to
hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis stress reactivity and regulation in
response to emotion challenge in 6-month-old infants. Ann N Y Acad Sci.
Caspi A, Williams B, Kim-Cohen J, Craig IW, Milne BJ,
Poulton R, Schalkwyk LC, Taylor A, Werts H, and Moffitt TE. 2007.
Moderation of breastfeeding effects on the IQ by genetic variation in
fatty acid metabolism. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
104(47):18860-5. Epub 2007 Nov 5.
Cents RA, Kok R, Tiemeier H, Lucassen N, Székely E, Bakermans-Kranenburg
MJ, Hofman A, Jaddoe VW, van IJzendoorn MH, Verhulst FC, Lambregtse-van
den Berg MP. 2014. Variations in maternal 5-HTTLPR affect observed sensitive parenting. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 55(9):1025-32.
Chugani HT, Behen ME,
Muzik O, Juhász C, Nagy F, and Chugani DC. 2001. Local brain functional
activity following early deprivation: a study of postinstitutionalized
Romanian orphans. Neuroimage. 14(6):1290-301.
and Hobson RP. 1999. Individual differences in young children's IQ: a
social-developmental perspective. J Child Psychol Psychiatry.
Davidov M and Grusec JE. 2006. Untangling
the links of parental responsiveness to distress and warmth to child
outcomes. Child Dev. 77(1):44-58.
Easterbrooks MA, Biesecker G,
and Lyons-Ruth K. 2000. Infancy predictors of emotional availability in
middle childhood: the roles of attachment security and maternal
depressive symptomatology. Attach Hum Dev. 2(2):170-87.
Feldman R, Rosenthal Z, Eidelman AI. 2014. Maternal-preterm skin-to-skin contact enhances child physiologic organization and cognitive control across the first 10 years of life. Biol Psychiatry. 75(1):56-64.
M, Santos PL, Beeghly M, and Tronick E. 2006. More than maternal
sensitivity shapes attachment: infant coping and temperament. Ann N Y
Acad Sci. 1094:292-6.
Gartstein MA, Hancock GR, Iverson SL. 2017. Positive
Affectivity and Fear Trajectories in Infancy: Contributions of Mother-Child
Interaction Factors. Child Dev. 2017 May 24. doi: 10.1111/cdev.12843. [Epub
ahead of print].
Havighurst SS, Wilson KR, Harley AE, Kehoe C, Efron D, Prior MR. 2013. "Tuning into Kids": reducing young children's behavior problems using an emotion coaching parenting program. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev. 44(2):247-64.
Hays, Sharon (1998). The Fallacious
Assumptions and Unrealistic Prescriptions of Attachment Theory: A
Comment on "Parents' Socioemotional Investment in Children Journal of
Marriage and the Family 60 (3):782-790
Kramer MS and Kakuma R. 2002. Optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. (1):CD003517.
KA, Abraham MM, Schlegelmilch A, and Morgan TA. 2007.Mother-child
attachment in later middle childhood: assessment approaches and
associations with mood and emotion regulation. Attach Hum Dev.
Kochanska G and Murray KT. 2000. Mother-child
mutually responsive orientation and conscience development: from toddler
to early school age. Child Development, Vol. 71(2): 417-431.
Kok R, Lucassen N, Bakermans-Kranenburg MJ, van Ijzendoorn MH, Ghassabian A, Roza SJ, Govaert P, Jaddoe VW, Hofman A, Verhulst FC, Tiemeier H. 2013. Parenting, corpus callosum, and executive function in preschool children. Child Neuropsychol. 2013 Sep 13. [Epub ahead of print]
M. 2005. Hunter-gatherer infancy and childhood: The !Kung and others.
In: Hunter-gatherer childhoods: Evolutionary, developmental and cultural
perpectives. BS Hewlett and ME Lamb (eds). New Brunswick: Transaction
Koren-Karie N, Oppenheim D, Dolev S, Sher E, and
Etzion-Carasso A. 2002. Mothers' insightfulness regarding their infants'
internal experience: relations with maternal sensitivity and infant
attachment. Dev Psychol. 38(4):534-42.
Landry SH, Smith KE, and
Swank PR. 2003. The importance of parenting during early childhood for
school-age development. Dev Neuropsychol. 24(2-3):559-91.
SH, Smith KE, Swank PR. 2006. Responsive parenting: establishing early
foundations for social, communication, and independent problem-solving
skills. Dev Psychol. 42(4):627-42.
Littlefield TR. 2003. Car
Seats, Infant Carriers, and Swings: Their Role in Deformational
Plagiocephaly. Journal of Prosthetics & Orthotics 15 (3): 102-106.
Luby J, Belden A, Botteron K, Marrus N, Harms MP, Babb C, Nishino T, and Barch D. 2013. The effects of poverty on childhood brain development: the mediating effect of caregiving and stressful life events. JAMA Pediatr. 167(12):1135-42
Madigan S, Brumariu LE, Villani V, Atkinson L, and Lyons-Ruth K. 2015. Representational and Questionnaire Measures of Attachment: A Meta-Analysis of Relations to Child Internalizing and Externalizing Problems. Psychol Bull. 2015 Nov 30. [Epub ahead of print]
NL and Booth-Laforce C. 2006. Maternal sensitivity to infant distress
and nondistress as predictors of infant-mother attachment security. J
Fam Psychol. 20(2):247-55.
Meins E, Fernyhough C, Fradley E, and
Tuckey M. 2001. Rethinking maternal sensitivity: Mothers’ comments on
infants’ mental processes predict security of attachment at 12 months.
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Discipline 42:
Mercer J. 2006. Understanding Attachment: Parenting, Child Care, and Emotional Development. Westport, CT: Praeger.
E, Fernyhough C, Fradley E, and Tuckey M. 2001.Rethinking maternal
sensitivity: mothers' comments on infants' mental processes predict
security of attachment at 12 months. J Child Psychol Psychiatry.
Minniti F, Comberiati P, Munblit D, Piacentini GL, Antoniazzi E, Zanoni L, Boner AL, Peroni DG. 2014. Breast-Milk Characteristics Protecting Against Allergy. Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets. 2014 Jan 21. [Epub ahead of print]
Moss E, Rousseau D, Parent S, St-Laurent D,
and Saintonge J. 1998. Correlates of attachment at school age: maternal
reported stress, mother-child interaction, and behavior problems.Child
Pluess M and Belsky J. 2010. Differential susceptibility to parenting and quality child care. Dev Psychol. 46(2):379-90.
O'Brien M, Nader PR, Houts RM, Bradley R,
Friedman SL, Belsky J, and Susman E. 2007. The ecology of childhood
overweight: a 12-year longitudinal analysis.Int J Obes (Lond).
31(9):1469-78. Epub 2007 Apr 3.
Posada G, Gao Y, Wu F,
Posada R, Tascon M, Schoelmerich A, Sagi A, Kondo-Ikemura K, Haaland W,
and Synnevaag B. 1995. The Secure-Base Phenomenon across Cultures:
Children's Behavior, Mothers' Preferences, and Experts' Concepts.
Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, Vol. 60,
No. 2/3, Caregiving, Cultural, and Cognitive Perspectives on Secure-Base
Behavior and Working Models: New Growing Points of Attachment Theory
and Research (1995), pp. 27-48.
Sears W and Sears M.
2001. The Attachment Parenting Book : A Commonsense Guide to
Understanding and Nurturing Your Baby. First edition. New York: Little,
Brown and company.
Schore AN. 2001. Effects of a Secure
Attachment Relationship on Right Brain Development, Affect Regulation,
and Infant Mental Health. Infant Mental Health Journal 22, 1-2: 7-66.
Stattin H, Enebrink P, Özdemir M, Giannotta F. 2015. A national evaluation of parenting programs in Sweden: The short-term effects using an RCT effectiveness design. J Consult Clin Psychol. 83(6):1069-84.
M, Steele H and Johansson M. 2002. Maternal predictors of children's
social cognition: an attachment perspective. J Child Psychol Psychiatry.
Steer CD, Davey Smith G, Emmett PM, Hibbeln JR, Golding J. 2010.
FADS2 polymorphisms modify the effect of breastfeeding on child IQ. PLoS One. 5(7):e11570.
Stright AD, Gallagher KC, and Kelley K. 2008. Infant temperament moderates relations between maternal parenting in early childhood and children's adjustment in first grade. Child Dev. 79(1):186-200.
True MM, Pisani L, and Oumar F. 2001.Infant-mother attachment among the Dogon of Mali.Child Dev. 72(5):1451-66.
Uvnas Moberg K. 2003. The oxytocin factor. Cambridge, MA: deCapo Press.
TM, McGrath PJ, and Symons DK. 2008. Attachment dimensions and young
children's response to pain. Pain Res Manag. 13(1):33-40.
Warner, Judith. 2005. Perfect Madness: Motherhood in the Age of Anxiety. Riverhead.
D. 2007. The influence of parent-infant cosleeping, nursing, and
childcare on cortisol and SIgA immunity in a sample of British children.
Dev Psychobiol. 49(6):640-8.
Wyman PA, Cowen EL, Work WC,
and Parker GR. 1991. Developmental and family milieu correlates of
resilience in urban children who have experienced major life stress.Am J
Community Psychol. 19(3):405-26.
Van Zeijl J,
Mesman J, Van IJzendoorn MH, Bakermans-Kranenburg MJ, Juffer F, Stolk
MN, Koot HM, and Alink LR. 2006. Attachment-based intervention for
enhancing sensitive discipline in mothers of 1- to 3-year-old children
at risk for externalizing behavior problems: a randomized controlled
trial. J Consult Clin Psychol. 74(6):994-1005.
Y, Aviezer O, Gini M, Sagi A, Koren-Karie N. 2000. Emotional
availability in the mother-infant dyad as related to the quality of
infant-mother attachment relationship.Attach Hum Dev. 2(2):149-69.
For other, fully-referenced articles about issues related to attachment parenting, see these discussions of the authoritative parenting style and other approaches to child-rearing.
Content last modified 10/14/2017