The beneficial effects of video games on the visual mind:
Do action video games sharpen visual-spatial skills?
© 2009 -2013 Gwen Dewar, Ph.D., all rights reserved
Assessing the beneficial effects of video games
Some parents worry about video games, and their worries aren't unwarranted.
Some video games can be engrossing, so much so that kids neglect other activities,
like school work, chores, exercise, and sleep.
There is also experimental evidence that
playing violent video games has an immediate, negative influence on our attitudes and behavior. But are the effects of video games all bad?
Some studies suggest that prosocial video games make kids more inclined to help others in the real world (Gentile et al 2009).
Other research indicates that kids who play action video games
may be sharpening their visual attention skills and improving their
capacity for visualizing three-dimensional objects.
It's even possible that these skills can help dyslexic children read.
Video games that hone visual-spatial skills
Perhaps you remember this: You’re playing a “third person" action
video game, the kind where you can see your character on the screen. You
must move your character around, avoid hazards, and shoot down
attackers. But you are inexperienced. All sorts of visual distractions
compete for your attention. Sometimes you lose track of your character.
Where is he? And while you’ve got your eyes on your character it’s easy
to miss incoming threats.
But beginning gamers improve over time. So, whatever else you
might think about action video games, one thing seems clear. To play
them well you need to develop your visual attention skills. And there
are other improvements, too.
Researchers have tested experienced gamers--kids and young
adults--on variety of cognitive tasks (e.g., Boot et al 2008; Green and
Bavelier 2007; Dye et al 2009). Compared to non-gamers of the same age,
the experienced gamers could:
- track objects moving at faster speeds
- track more objects at once
- filter out irrelevant visual information
- switch more quickly from one task to the next
- better detect changes in briefly-flashing visual arrays
- more accurately predict how 3-dimensional objects would appear when rotated
These differences might reflect self-selection. Maybe people who
are more skilled at these tasks are more motivated to play video games.
But experimental studies suggest that playing action video games
might help people become more skillful in at least one visual-spatial
task. Inexperienced people trained with video games have improved their
mental rotation abilities (e.g., Green and Bavelier 2007; Feng et al
2007; Boot et al 2008).
Moreover, a recent experiment suggests that game-related improvements are accompanied by distinctive changes in brain processing. In this study, the trainees who showed the greatest improvement in spatial skills also displayed a pattern of increased amplitude in their visual event-related potentials, a pattern which may reflect more intense brain activity for visual attention and the suppression of distracting information (Wu et al 2012).
How useful are these abilities? To date, good “action video game
skills" haven’t been linked with higher IQs or better scholastic
But recent research suggests that action video games -- by
improving visual attention skills -- may help dyslexic children improve
their reading ability (Franceschini et al 2013; Bavelier et al 2013). And spatial rotation
skills come in handy whenever we need to make objects "fit,"
whether the context is molecular chemistry, mechanical engineering, or
attempting to parallel park your car.
Moreover, it’s probably
short-sighted to dismiss any video game skills as “non-academic."
Once upon a time, the skills that make kids good readers would
have had little relevance. Before the invention of books, the ability to
memorize information was probably more important than the ability to
Someday, researchers may develop more efficient technologies for
transmitting information--technologies that will depend on the user’s
visual-spatial skills. When that happens, the best action video gamers
may have an advantage.
Meanwhile, researchers are exploring the use of video games as a
tool to train visual skills in patients with disabilities (Achtman et al
2008). And it appears that action video games could help girls--who
tend to be less adept at spatial rotation--improve their spatial
rotation abilities. (Feng et al 2007).
So perhaps we owe action video games a bit of respect. After all,
we encourage kids to play games that improve their hand-eye
coordination and aim. Maybe we should think of action video games in the
same way--as activities that have the potential to sharpen our
children’s perceptions and responses to the world.
To learn more about the effects of action video games on visual attention and reading ability, see my article "Do video games cause - or cure - attention problems in children?"
For information about other, possible benefits of video game play, see my articles about
educational video games
as well as my article about the
beneficial effects of video games on prosocial behavior.
For a discussion of the negative effects of video games, see this article about
video game violence.
References: The beneficial effects of video games
Achtman RL, Green CS, and Bavelier D. 2008. Video games as a tool to
train visual skills. Restor Neurol Neurosci. 26(4-5):435-46.
Anderson CA, 2008 Longitudinal Effects of Violent Video Games on
Aggression in Japan and the United States Pediatrics122(5): 1067-1072.
Bavelier D, Green CS, and Seidenberg MS. 2013. Cognitive development: gaming your way out of dyslexia? Curr Biol. 23(7):R282-3.
Boot WR, Kramer AF, Simons DJ, Fabiani M, and Gratton G. 2008.
The effects of video game playing on attention, memory, and executive
control. Acta Psychol (Amst). 129(3):387-98.
Dye MW, Green CS, Bavelier D. 2009. The development of attention
skills in action video game players. Neuropsychologia. 47(8-9):1780-9.
Feng J, Spence I, and Pratt J. 2007. Playing an action video game
reduces gender differences in spatial cognition. Psychol Sci.
Franceschini S, Gori S, Ruffino M, Viola S, Molteni M, and
Facoetti A. 2013. Action Video Games Make Dyslexic Children Read Better.
Current Biology 23(6):462-6.
Gentile DA, Anderson CA, Yukawa S, Ihori N, et al. 2009. The
effects of prosocial video games on prosocial behaviors: International
evidence from correlational, longitudinal, and experimental studies.
Pers Soc Psychol Bull. 35(6): 752-763.
Gentile D. 2009. Pathological video-game use among youth ages 8 to 18: a national study. Psychol Sci. 20(5):594-602.
Green CS and Bavelier D. 2007. Action-video-game experience alters the spatial resolution of vision. Psychol Sci. 18(1):88-94.
Wu S, Cheng CK, Feng J, D'Angelo L, Alain C, and Spence I. 2012. Playing a first-person shooter video game induces neuroplastic change. J Cogn Neurosci. 24(6):1286-93.
Content of "The beneficial effects of video games" last modified 3/13