This article focuses on the newborn feeding schedule. For more general information about infant feeding, see my articles about the infant feeding schedule and breastfeeding on demand. Those articles review the evolutionary, cross-cultural and clinical evidence in favor of frequent, baby-initiated feedings.
Here I outline the special problems that young babies face, problems that might get worse if caregivers stick to a strict schedule.
Throughout much of the 20th century, Western medical professionals recommended that newborns be fed on a strictly-regulated timetable (Fildes 1986).
Today, we know better. The scientific evidence strongly suggests that newborns—defined as babies less than a month old—benefit when they are fed frequently and on demand.
Consider these points:
• Frequent feedings reduce the time it takes for a woman’s milk to come in. In one study, moms who breastfed newborns every two hours began lactating eat least 24 hours earlier than did moms who breastfed every four hours (Salariya et al 1978).
• Frequent breastfeeds increase a mother’s prolactin levels, and high prolactin levels are needed to establish an adequate milk supply. In a U.S. study, breastfeeding frequency of about 10 times a day (range: 7-13 times a day) was associated with sufficient milk (de Carvalo et al 1982).
• Colostrum, the milk produced during the first few days postpartum, is lower in fat and calories than is more mature milk. It is also produced in smaller amounts. A higher-frequency newborn feeding schedule helps babies compensate for the lower caloric density of their milk.
• More frequent feedings (8-12 times per 24 hours) during the first weeks of life are associated with greater overall milk intake (De Carvalho et al 1983) and greater weight gain at 15 days (De Carvalho et al 1983) and six weeks (Casiday et al 2004) of age.
• Newborns differ in sucking strength, and this affects how rapidly they empty a breast or bottle (e.g., Pollitt et al 1978). As a result, some babies require longer feeding bouts than others. This is especially true for the lower birth weight baby and the premature baby-—both of whom may lack the strength to suck effectively (Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences 1991).
• Newborns vary greatly in the amount of milk (or formula) they consume during a single feed (e.g., Pollitt et al 1978). As a result, some babies require more frequent feedings to achieve the same daily caloric intake. A demand-style newborn feeding schedule permits babies to adjust to their individual circumstances.
• Breastfeeding newborns don’t overeat. Between days 6-10 postpartum, mothers are capable of producing an average of 1200 g of milk per day. But their babies consume far less than this—-about 500-700 g/day (Casey et al., 1986; Saint et al., 1984).
• Scheduled feedings have been linked with poorer, long-term academic outcomes. Researchers tracking more than 10,000 children from infancy have found that babies fed on a schedule at 4 weeks of age had lower cognitive and academic scores in later years (Iacovou and Sevilla 2013).
This sort of evidence has led the World Health Organization (WHO) to denounce the regimented newborn feeding schedule as "clearly harmful or ineffective" (WHO 1998).
Similarly, the American Academy
of Pediatrics advises parents to feed newborns "whenever they
show signs of hunger," or approximately 8-12 times every 24-hours (Work Group on Breastfeeding 1997).
It's possible, I think, to take these recommendations too far.
Some maternity wards have a policy of awakening new mothers every 2-3 hours to breastfeed. Given the physical stress and sleeplessness associated with childbirth--and the risks that sleeplessness pose for the development of postpartum depression--is such a policy justified?
I've seen no evidence for it, and it’s certainly not "natural," not if by that you mean "consistent with what humans do in the absence of hospital care."
Contemporary hunter-gatherers--whose lifeways most closely resemble those of our ancestors--nurse their babies 2-4 times an hour (Konner 2006). But even they recognize the needs of mothers who have just given birth. The common pattern is to let mothers to recuperate for the first 24 hours. If the baby is hungry and the mother is asleep, somebody else nurses the baby.
Are there lessons here for us? I think so. During those first crucial hours postpartum, we need to help mothers who are recovering from childbirth.
The new consensus: Summing up the latest recommendations
Although feeding practices vary worldwide, the international medical establishment is in general agreement. These recommendations are endorsed by the World Health Organization (WHO 1998), La Leche League, and the American Academy of Pediatrics (Work Group on Breastfeeding 1997):
As noted above, newborns get more to eat and gain more weight when they are fed 8-12 times a day.
Feed when your baby shows signs of hunger
Each newborn is different. Some may feel hungry every 30 minutes. Others may be fine with much longer intervals between feedings. Be sensitive to your baby’s hunger cues. These include
• Rooting (searching for a breast)
• Hand-sucking and hand-to-mouth movements
• Increased alertness or restlessness
Don’t wait for your newborn to cry. Crying is a late sign of hunger, and once a newborn begins crying it may take time for him to settle down and feed.
Don't restrict time at the breast (or bottle)
This may prevent your baby from taking in enough calories. If you’re
breastfeeding, a strictly timed newborn feeding schedule may also
deprive your baby of high-fat hind milk. Read more here.
Sleep or food?
The American Academy of Pediatrics advises parents to awaken sleeping newborns if they haven’t fed for four hours or more. Waking a baby might sound like a bad idea, and it's not clear to me what (if any) evidence) the AAP bases this recommendation on. But it is a common practice in some Non-Western cultures (Worthman and Melby 2002).
Watch the diaper count
By the fourth or fifth day postpartum, newborns should urinate at least six wet diapers a day. Urine should be clear or pale yellow. If your newborn is urinating less frequently-—or if your newborn’s urine is dark yellow or orange-—she’s probably not getting enough milk. Consult your pediatrician.
Watch your baby's weight (and don't panic)
Newborns lose weight after delivery, and breastfed babies lose more weight than do bottle-fed babies (Martens and Romphf 2007). This isn't surprising, since new moms produce very little milk in the first few days after birth. In one study of American breastfed newborns, more than half the babies lost at least 5% of their birth weight in the first three days postpartum (Dewey et al 2003).
But physicians say that weight loss should stop by around five days of age. By one to two weeks, most newborns have regained their birth weights. Again, check with your pediatrician to make sure that your baby’s weight gains are on target.
For more details, download the American Academy of Pediatrics' paper on
breastfeeding and the newborn feeding schedule.
Nutrition during lactation (1991) is an excellent resource for parents who want detailed information about the newborn feeding schedule and other breastfeeding issues. It is available online. For more information regarding the newborn feeding schedule, see these publications (cited in the article above):
American Academy of Pediatrics. 1997. Breastfeeding and the Use of Human Milk. Pediatrics 100 (6): 1035-1039.
Casiday RE, Wright Cm, Panter-Brick C, and Parkinson KN. 2004. Do early infant feeding patterns relate to breast-feeding continuation and weight gain? Data from a longitudinal cohort study. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 58(9): 1290-1296.
Casey CE, M.R. Neifert MR, Seacat JM, and Neville MC. 1986. Nutrient intake by breastfed infants during the first five days after birth. Am. J. Dis. Child. 140:933-936.
de Carvalho M., Robertson S, Merkatz R, and Klaus M. 1982. Milk intake and frequency of feeding in breastfed infants. Early Hum. Dev. 7:155-163.
Dewey KG, Nommsen-Rivers LA, Heinig MJ, and Cohen RJ. 2003. Risk Factors for Suboptimal Infant Breastfeeding Behavior, Delayed Onset of Lactation, and Excess Neonatal Weight Loss. Pediatrics 112: 607-619.
Fildes VA. Breasts, bottles and babies. 1986. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Freeman V, van't Hof M, and Haschke F. 2000. Patterns of milk and food intake in infants from birth to age 36 months: the Euro-growth study. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 31 Suppl 1:S76-85.
Huffman SL et al. 1987. Suckling Patterns and Post-partum Amenorrhea in Bangladesh. Journal of Biosocial Science, 19:171
Iacovou M and Sevilla A. 2013. Infant feeding: the effects of scheduled vs. on-demand feeding on mothers' wellbeing and children's cognitive development. Eur J Public Health. 23(1):13-9.
Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences. 1991. Nutrition during lactation. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Kaucher M, E.Z. Moyer EZ, Richards AJ, Williams HH, Wertz AL, and Macy IG. 1945. Human milk studies. XX. The diet of lactating women and the collection and preparation of food and human milk for analysis. Am. J. Dis. Child. 70:142-147.
Konner M. 2005. Hunter-gatherer infancy and childhood: The !Kung and others. In: Hunter-gatherer childhoods: Evolutionary, developmental and cultural perpectives. BS Hewlett and ME Lamb (eds). New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.
Maisels MJ, Vain N, Acquavita AM, de Blanco NV, Cohen A and DiGregorio, J. 1994. The Effect of Breast-Feeding Frequency on Serum Bilirubin Levels. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology 170(3):880-883.
Manz F, van’t Hof MA, and Haschke F. 1999. The mother-infant relationship: Who controls breastfeeding? Lancet 353: 1152.
Martens PJ and Romphf L. 2007. Factors associated with newborn in-hospital weight loss: comparisons by feeding method, demographics, and birthing procedures. J Hum Lact.23(3):233-41, quiz 242-5.
Okechukwu and Okolo 2006. Exclusive breastfeeding frequency during the first seven days of life in term neonates. Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal 13(4): 309-312.
Pollitt E, Gilmore M, and Valcarcel M. 1978. The stability of sucking behavior and its relationship to intake during the first month of life. Infant Behav. Dev. 1:347-357.
Saint L, Smith M, and Hartmann PE. 1984. The yield and nutrient content of colostrum and milk of women giving birth to 1 month post-partum. Br. J. Nutr. 52:87-95.
Salariya EM, Easton PM and Cater JI. 1978. Duration of breastfeeding after early inititation of frequent feeding. Lancet 2 (8100): 1141-1143.
Whitehead RG, Rowland MGM, Hutton MA, Prentice AM, Muller EM, and Paul AA. 1978. Factors Influencing Lactation Performance in Rural Gambian Mothers. Lancet ii: 178 – 181.
The World Health Organization, 1998. Postpartum care for mother and newborn: report of a technical working group.
Worthman CM and Melby M. 2002. Toward a comparative developmental ecology of human sleep. In: Adolescent Sleep Patterns: Biological, Social, and Psychological Influences, M.A. Carskadon (ed). New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 69-117.
Yamauchi Y and Yamauchi I. 1990. Breast-feeding frequency during the first 24 hours after birth in full-term neonates. Pediatrics 86: 171-175.Content of "The newborn feeding schedule" last modified 3/14