Night wakings: A guide for the science-minded parent
© 2008 - 2013 Gwen Dewar, Ph.D., all rights reserved
Although many people associate night wakings with infants, all
healthy people—whether they realize it or not—experience multiple
arousals during the night.
When children are aroused in the middle of the night, they may fall back asleep quietly on their own. It’s only when kids don’t fall back to sleep quietly—but wake up
their parents instead—that night arousals are perceived to be a problem.
And it’s a common problem.
A Swiss study that tracked kids from birth reports that over 30% of kids
between 2 and 7 experienced at least once disruptive night awakening
each week. Among 10 year olds, the rate remained high--almost 23% (Jenni
et al 2005).
In this article, I review the science of interrupted sleep:
• Why nobody truly "sleeps through the night"
• Why baby sleep is more fragmented than adult sleep
• Causes of frequent or disruptive awakenings in kids
• What to do if your child awakens frequently at night
Night wakings: Why nobody truly "sleeps through the night"
Perhaps you’ve heard parents brag that their children are "sleeping
through the night." This isn’t happening in your family, and you’re
wondering what’s wrong.
Your baby seems to be a light sleeper. She’s easily aroused at
night and (when things get really difficult) she seems capable of waking
up every hour.
Or maybe you have an older child and wonder why he is still having
trouble sleeping through the night at an age when other kids are
sleeping like logs.
Why is your kid troubled by night wakings?
Possibly, your child suffers from a medical condition, like gastroesophageal reflux disease or sleep apnea.
But there is another, more general answer to this question—an
answer that applies in cases where there is nothing medically or
Nobody truly "sleeps through the night," not if we mean by this phrase "sleeping continuously in one, long bout." Babies, children, and adults all experience interruptions during the night.
For example, when an adult sleeps, her sleep patterns are defined by short sleep
cycles that last about 90-100 minutes. Each sleep cycle is a sequence of sleep stages, beginning with
relatively brief, light stages of sleep, progressing through stages of
deep sleep, and ending with REM (rapid-eye movement) sleep, the sleep
state associated with dreams.
At the end of a sleep cycle, the sleeper may begin the cycle all over again. But she might also awaken.
People are easily aroused during, and immediately after, REM
sleep. And sleep studies that record brain activity show that people
experience multiple arousals during the night -- about 10-20 per hour
(Bonnet and Arand 2007). If we aren't aware of these arousals, it's
because we sink back into sleep very quickly and don't remember the
disruption in the morning.
But of course many people are aware of waking up in the middle of the night. They may have trouble getting back to sleep, and view their trouble as a pathology. A sleep specialist might diagnose them with a medical disorder: "secondary insomnia" (Dement and Vaughan 1999).
But are night wakings necessarily a bad thing--a sign that something is medically or psychologically wrong? The cross-cultural evidence suggests otherwise.
Night wakings in anthropological perspective
Ethnographic and historical research indicates that
"sleeping through the night" is not a universal expectation. For instance, in pre-industrial Europe, people met their sleep needs in at least two
distinct sleep sessions (sometimes called "first sleep" and "second sleep"). They
may have also taken naps during the day (Ekirch 2005).
Similarly, people living in a variety of non-Western, traditional cultures have been known to seek sleep in multiple, daily bouts (Worthman and Melby 2002).
And an experiment conducted by the National Institute of Mental Health suggests that contemporary Americans tend to slip back into a two-phase sleep pattern when (1) they are denied access to artificial lighting and (2) find themselves living under conditions that simulate winter at high latitudes.
When eight volunteers were confined
to darkness for 14 hours a day, they began the study by sleeping about 11
hours at a stretch, as if they were catching up on their sleep. But soon after, they
settled into a new pattern, sleeping in two separate intervals, each
lasting 4-5 hours long (Barbato et al 1994).
This doesn’t mean that night wakings don’t present a problem to
sleepless parents. But it does suggest that sleep is more variable and flexible than we sometimes assume. And the better we understand this variation,
the better we can cope with night wakings in babies and children.
Why do babies experience frequent night wakings?
Babies have shorter sleep cycles, and they spend proportionally
more time in “active sleep," the baby equivalent of REM. They also have
smaller stomachs, which means they need to eat more frequently than
adults do. Put these traits together, and you get a creature that sleeps lightly and needs to awaken every few hours.
This is especially true for newborns, who may awaken for feedings
every two hours. But older babies are also likely to experience
night wakings. In one study that recorded the sleep patterns of healthy 2- and
9-month old infants, babies averaged 3 major awakenings each night (Anders
Why, then, do some parents claim their babies sleep
through the night? Most likely, they are simply unaware of their
infants' brief night wakings. The issue, then, isn't whether or not your
baby wakes up during the night. It's whether he also wakes you up.
For tips on coping with
baby night wakings, see this article on baby sleep patterns.
And what about big kids?
Many people expect children to sleep soundly throughout the
night. But as we've seen, interrupted sleep is normal for adults and
infants. It's also normal for big kids.
In fact, if you think your child doesn't
wake up, you are mistaken. That's the implication of studies that
monitor children's sleep with actigraphs. When researchers compared
objective data with subjective, parental reports, they found that
parents consistently underestimated how frequently their kids awakened during the night (e.g., Holley et al 2010; Kushnir and Sadeh 2013).
waking up doesn't mean your child is unhealthy, immature for his age,
or maladjusted. But some night wakings are symptomatic of real problems,
and these problems should be addressed.
Here are some common causes of night wakings—and advice for coping with them.
• Nighttime fears and separation anxiety. Worried, frightened kids have more sleep problems, including disruptive night wakings (Petit et al 2006; Gregory et al 2005; Kushnir and Sadeh 2011; Meltzer et al 2013). There is no evidence that
nighttime fears or separation anxiety will diminish as a result of sleep
training. In fact, research suggests that ignoring your child’s fears
may lead to nightmares and emotional problems. So it’s important to take
an active role in teaching your child to overcome her fears. For more
information, see this article on
nighttime fears in children.
• Nightmares. Nightmares are frightening dreams associated with
REM sleep, and they are more likely to occur after a child has been
sleeping for several hours. When a child wakes up immediately after a
nightmare, she is likely to remember it. Triggers for nightmares include
stress, anxiety, traumatic events, and medications that interfere with
REM sleep (Moore et al 2007). Kids who awaken from nightmares need to be
reassured that their dreams weren’t real. To help kids cope with
emotions associated with nightmares, see my article on
nighttime fears in children.
• Night terrors. Like nightmares, night terrors are distressing,
disruptive, and cause night wakings. But night terrors differ from
nightmares in several key respects. A child may move--even sleep
walk--during a night terror, which puts him at risk of hurting himself.
For help distinguishing night terrors from nightmares--and for tips on
treatment--see this article on
night terrors in children.
• Overtiredness. When people are overtired, their sleep may
become more restless and they suffer more frequent night wakings. If
your child is overtired, he needs more sleep. For tips on getting him to
get to sleep earlier at night, see this article on
bedtime problems in children.
• Snoring and other forms of sleep-disordered breathing. Sleep
disordered breathing (SDB) includes snoring, loud breathing, troubled
breathing and interrupted breathing (apnea) during sleep. SDB can
restrict the oxygen supply to a child’s brain and cause serious health
problems. It is also associated with poor sleep quality, nighttime
crying, daytime sleepiness, attention problems, hyperactivity, and
frequent night wakings (e.g., Fukumizu et al 2005; Hiscock et al 2007;
Shur-Fen Gau 2006). If you suspect your child suffers from
sleep-disordered breathing, consult your physician.
• Full or irritable bladders. Kids may be awakened during
the night be the urge to urinate, so it’s wise to avoid drinking fluids
before bedtime. But some children may have urinary tract problems that
awaken them even when their bladders aren’t full. Girls are especially
prone to urinary tract infections because the female urethra is very
short—making it easier for germs to enter the body. If your child has
frequent night wakings, try to find out if bathroom trips are
contributing to the problem.
• GER (gastroesophageal reflux). Kids who suffer from
gastroesophageal reflux (stomach acid in the esophagus, also known as
heartburn) may experience frequent night wakings. GER is associated with
sleep-disordered breathing and can be—in some cases—dangerous. If you
think your child may suffer from GER, consult your physician for
treatment options. Meanwhile, avoid acidic and hard-to-digest foods
• Headaches. A recent Polish study of 284 kindergarten and
school-aged children reports that kids who suffered from headaches were
more likely to suffer from frequent night wakings (Zarowski et al 2007).
Similar results have been reported for kids in the United States (Long et al 2010) and Italy (Carotenuto et al 2005). It’s not clear if the headaches are causing the
sleep problems, or the sleep problems are causing the headaches. Either
way, it’s a good idea to have your child’s headaches investigated by a
• Stress. Like adults, kids experience sleep problems when
they are under stress. Children who’ve experienced traumatic events are
likely to suffer from nightmares and other sleep disturbances (Sadeh
1996). But everyday stressors disturb sleep, too. For instance, kids
experiencing family stress suffer more night wakings and get less sleep
overall (El Shaik et al 2006; Sadeh et al 1999). And these sleep
problems are associated with elevated stress hormone levels (El Shaik et
• Sleep-onset associations. According to a prevailing
theory among Western sleep researchers, kids often learn to associate
falling asleep with certain forms of stimulation—like parental soothing
or a particular sleep environment. These sleep aids may be very
effective, but if kids become dependent on them, they fail to learn how
to fall asleep on their own. So if your child is used to falling asleep
in your presence, but wakes up alone, he may not be able to settle
himself back to sleep (Moore et al 2006). If you want your child to
develop self-soothing skills, you may want to consider sleep training.
For more information, see these articles on
"no cry" sleep training
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