The permissive parenting style: Does it ever benefit kids?
© 2010 Gwen Dewar, Ph.D., all rights reserved
In a variety of studies, the
permissive parenting style
has been associated with behavior problems.
example, Susie Lamborn and colleagues surveyed over 4000 American
families and found that adolescents with permissive parents achieved
less at school and were more likely to engage in self-destructive
activities, like drug or alcohol use (Lamborn et al 1991).
studies suggest that adolescent boys raised by permissive parents are
more likely to react with intense, negative emotions to social conflicts
(Miller et al 2002).
And for very young children? Permissive parenting has been linked with children exhibiting poorer self-control (Piotrowski et al 2013).
But there is conflicting evidence. Consider, for instance, a study of parenting in Spain. Researchers report that permissiveness was associated with strong academic performance and relatively few
behavior problems (Garcia and Gracia 2009).
Why the conflict?
Fernando Garcia and Enrique Gracia argue that social relationships in
Spain are less hierarchical than they are in, say, the United States or
Japan. Social relationships are more egalitarian.
As a result,
parental strictness and control are perceived more negatively in Spain.
And if permissiveness is more socially acceptable, then maybe kids
raised by permissive parents have an easier time fitting in (Garcia and
I don’t know enough about Spain to evaluate this
argument. I don’t doubt that culture influences parenting. But American
ideology is notably egalitarian, so I’m a bit skeptical.
wonder about definitions. There are many ways to be permissive. If I give my child some autonomy about scheduling her chores, is that permissive? If I give my teenager some leeway in setting his own bedtime, is that permissive? Different researchers might have different answers to these questions.
Different definitions of the permissive parenting style
How your parenting might rate as permissive in one study, and not permissive in another
As I explain
the permissive parenting style is defined by two important
characteristics. Permissive parents are responsive (which is good) and
reluctant to enforce standards of conduct (which is usually not good).
Permissive parenting is frequently contrasted with the
authoritative parenting, the gold standard of parenting styles.
Like permissive parents, authoritative parents are responsive. But they are also demanding--i.e., they enforce standards.
not the whole picture. For example, authoritative parents aren’t just
demanding. They also reason with their kids, promote independent
thinking, and encourage a verbal give-and-take (Baumrind 1966).
But the main point is this:
difference between permissive parenting and authoritative parenting
isn’t about showing affection or meeting a child’s emotional needs. Both
styles do that. The difference is about enforcing standards.
So how do researchers decide if a responsive, nurturing parent is “demanding" enough to be considered “authoritative?"
Do you have a permissive parenting style?
How would your teenager answer these questions?
Typically, researchers measure parenting style with questionnaires.
instance, the Spanish study used the Parental Control Scale, a
questionnaire about parental strictness. Teenagers were asked to rate
with a four-point scale (1= “almost never true", 4 = “almost always
true") their agreement with statements like
“My parent tells me exactly what time to be home when I go out."
“My parent gives me certain jobs to do and will not let me do anything else until they are done."
a teenager disagrees with such statements, is his parent a pushover?
What if parents and kids have a tacit understanding—one that makes lots
of specific rules unnecessary?
Some teens might disagree with
these statements, not because their parents are permissive but because
their parents don’t need to tell them “exactly what time to be home" or
“in exactly what order" to tackle chores. Such teens know their parents
expect them to be mature and responsible. They don’t require
micro-management to stay out of trouble.
In other words, some teens might disagree with these statements because they have authoritative--not permissive--parents.
In this light, let’s go back to the American study—the one that linked permissive parenting with worse outcomes.
In that study, teens weren’t asked if their parents tell them exactly when to come home. Instead, they were asked
“How much do your parents try to know where you go at night?"
And teens had to rate their agreement with this statement:
“My parent knows exactly where I am most afternoons after school."
Different wording, different connotations.
statements used in the Spanish study might tell us something about
family rules and regulations, but they don’t necessarily distinguish
permissive parents from authoritative parents.
It seems possible
that the Spanish sample of “permissive" parents included parents who
might be classified as “authoritative" in other studies.
So can we conclude that the permissive parenting style is good for Spaniards and bad for Americans?
I doubt it. Instead, we may have evidence that some parents can raise well-behaved, high-achieving adolescents without imposing lots of specific, inflexible rules.
studies may prove me wrong--maybe cultural differences can explain the
whole thing. But for now, I think it's premature to assume that
permissiveness has such markedly different effects in Spain and the
How should we measure permissive parenting?
I don’t do research on the permissive parenting style, so I don’t presume to know what’s best.
if the permissive parenting style is defined as a failure to enforce
age-appropriate behavioral standards, then perhaps we should be looking
for parents who routinely
• ignore misconduct (e.g., letting kids get away with deliberate rudeness), and
• give in to a child’s demands when he causes a commotion or throws a tantrum
criteria have been used in a variety of studies, including studies of
parents in Australia, China, Russia, and the United States (Robinson et
al 1996). I like the criteria because they address what I think of as
the “bottom line"--letting kids get away with doing bad things.
Alternatively, I’ve also seen studies where researchers asked what parents expect from their kids, e.g.,
“My mother really expects me to follow family rules."
Parents with lower expectations were considered more permissive.
Of course, these approaches still leave some grey areas. What counts as bad behavior?
disagree about what is acceptable. For that matter, parents living in
the same society may disagree. When it comes to specific practices—like
setting bedtimes, controlling access to television, restricting sweets,
censoring profanity, or discouraging displays of aggression—policies
that seem strict to one family might seem permissive in another.
Does this mean the whole concept of “permissiveness" is hopelessly relative?
don’t think so. As noted by Nancy Darling and Laurence Steinberg,
parenting styles are more than a set of specific practices, policies, or
goals. Parenting styles are about the big picture—the kind of
relationship you have with your child (Darling and Steinberg 1993).
when it comes to being diagnosed as a permissive parent, it may not
matter if your family’s rules are unusual or different. What really matters is whether or not you expect kids to follow the rules, and how you respond to defiance.
these criteria were used more consistently, then perhaps there would be
less disagreement across studies. Future research may give us the
Meanwhile, one thing is clear. We can’t interpret
research about the permissive parenting style unless we know precisely
how investigators define and measure permissiveness.
For more information about the permissive parenting style, see these articles:
The Permissive Parenting Style: A guide to the research
The curious case of Summerhill School: Are today's parents too permissive to fit the original model of permissive parenting?
For information about other parenting styles, see my articles about
In addition, check out this general overview of the four basic parenting styles,
"Parenting styles: A guide for the science-minded."
References: The permissive parenting style
Baumrind D. 1966. Effects of authoritative parental control on child behavior. Child Development 37(4: 887-907.
D. 1991. The influence of parenting style on adolescent competence and
substance use. Journal of Early Adolescence 11(1): 56-95.
and Steinberg L. 1993. Parneting style as context: An integrative
model. Psychological Bulletin 113(3): 487-496.Garcia F and Gracia E.
2009. Is always authoritative the optimum parenting style? Evidence from
Spanish families. Adolescence 44(173): 101-131.
García F and Gracia E. 2009. Is always authoritative the optimum parenting style? Evidence from Spanish families. Adolescence. 44(173):101-31.
Lamborn SD, Mants
NS, Steinberg L, and Dornbusch SM. 1991. Patterns of competence and
adjustment among adolescents from authoritative, authoritarian,
indulgent, and neglectful families. Child Development 62: 1049-1065.
EE and Martin JA. 1983. Socialization in the context of the family:
Parent–child interaction. In P. H. Mussen (ed) and E. M. Hetherington
(vol. ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 4. Socialization,
personality, and social development (4th ed., pp. 1-101). New York:
Miller JM, Dilorio C, Dudley W. 2002. Parenting style and
adolescent’s reaction to conflict: Is there a relationship? J Adolesc
Health 31(6): 463-468.
Piotrowski JT, Lapierre MA, Linebarger DL. 2013. Investigating Correlates of Self-Regulation in Early Childhood with a
Representative Sample of English-Speaking American Families. J Child Fam Stud. 22(3):423-436.
Robinson CC, Hart CH, Mandleco BL, and
Olsen SF. 1996. Psychometric support for a new measure of authoritative,
authoritarian, and permissive parenting practices: Cross cultural
connections. Paper presented in Symposium: New measures of parental
child-rearing practices developed in different cultural contexts, XIVth
Biennial International Society for the Study of Behavioral Development
Conference, Quebec City, Canada, August 12-16, 1996.
2008. “It’s 10 o’clock: Do you know where your children are?": Recent
advances in understanding parental monitoring and adolescent disclosure.
Child Development Perspectives, 2(1), 19-25.
This article about the permissive parenting style is based on research published before February 2014.
Content last modified 2/2014