In Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, Harry Potter learns a terrible truth: His late father had been a school bully.
disturbing. After all, Harry Potter’s father hadn’t been a social oaf—a
slow-witted outsider who couldn’t think of anything better to do. James
Potter had been an admired upper classman, a star athlete, a “cool"
guy. He had no excuse for being a bully.
But is that really unusual?
We sometimes hear that bullies harass other people
because they are emotionally insecure or socially incompetent. They
resort to harassment and intimidation because they can’t think of any
better way of getting attention.
The reality is more complicated than that.
Two kinds of bully
Yes, there are bullies who feel like social misfits. There are bullies who feel depressed, anxious, or lonely.
By contrast, there are the “pure" bullies. These are the people who
always occupy the dominant role. They don’t get victimized by other
bullies. They are at the top of the food chain. And they seem to reap
the benefits of their position.
A new understanding of the pure bully
Research has debunked several misconceptions about bullies.
Bullies aren’t necessarily high-strung, insecure, socially clueless, or academically inept.
Nor is bullying only about physical aggression.
aggressive bullying—also called direct bullying--may include hitting,
kicking, or taking a victim’s personal belongings.
But there is
also relational bullying, which involves more subtle forms of
harassment: social snubs, name-calling, and the spreading of malicious
As researchers have taken a closer look at bullying, a new picture has emerged.
pure bullies may be skilled social strategists--cool, confident
manipulators who use harassment to enhance their social status.
Support for this hypothesis? Check out these points.
Pure bullies don’t seem to suffer from low self-esteem
In a study of American 6th graders, researchers interviewed kids to
determine who the bullies, bully/victims, and victims were. Then they
asked each child a series of personal questions (Juvonen et al 2003).
to other children, pure bullies were more likely to agree with such
statements as “I do most things right." They were least likely to agree
with statements like “I worry about what others think." They were also
the least likely to agree with statements that indicated loneliness or
social anxiety (e.g., “I have nobody to talk to" and “I worry about what
others will think of me").
For bully-victims, the results were
different. They showed more psychological distress then did kids who
were uninvolved in bullying.
But pure bullies seemed to be the
least anxious, least depressed, and least lonely of all kids—including
those kids who were wholly uninvolved in bullying.
Other research supports the idea of the confident bully. Studies conducted in Finland, Ireland, and the United States have all found that kids who bullied were more likely to have positive
self-concepts (Kaukianien et al 2002; Collins and Bell 1996; Pollastri et al 2010).
In fact, kids with high self-esteem may tend to be more aggressive than other children. In one study,
researchers asked hundreds of American kids (from the 3rd, 4th, and 4th
grades) to rate the aggressiveness of their peers (David and Kistner
2000). Kids also reported on how they felt about themselves.
kids with highly positive self-images were more likely to be named as
aggressive by their peers. The results remained significant after
controlling for gender and ethnicity, and even moderately positive
self-perceptions were linked with higher levels of aggression.
Granted, these studies relied on what kids said they felt about themselves. Maybe pure bullies are simply more reluctant to admit their insecurities.
when researchers presented kids with a personality questionnaire
designed to detect lies, pure bullies showed less evidence of lying than
did kids who were uninvolved in bullying (Mynard and Joseph 1997).
Other evidence suggests that pure bullies are relatively cool-headed.
Pure bullies aren’t “wired" or “high-strung"
study of young British adolescents examined their levels or arousal—the
degree to which they were excited or stressed by stimuli in the
environment. Researchers found that bully/victims had higher levels of
arousal than all other kids—including passive victims (Woods and White
But the arousal levels of pure bullies were much lower,
similar to those of neutral kids (who were neither bullies nor victims).
Maintaining lower states of arousal may help pure bullies control their
emotions, making them more effective schemers (Woods and White 2005).
Pure bullies aren't social oafs
Experiments on British kids have shown that bullies actually outperformed their peers on social cognition tasks.
In particular, these kids—aged 7 to 10 years—did a better job of
identifying the mental states and emotions of the main character in a
story (Sutton et al 1999).
A more recent, Italian study has replicated some of these results.
this study, psychologist Gianluca Gini asked primary school children to
identify who among them were bullies and who were victims. In addition,
Gini asked students to identify peers who
• Help the bully
• Laugh at people getting bullied
• Stick up for the victim
• Isn’t usually there when someone gets bullied
Then Gini presented each student with social cognition tasks—a series of short stories that students were required to interpret.
The stories portrayed characters with thoughts, beliefs, goals, and emotions—including moral emotions, like guilt.
found that the kids identified as bullies performed as well as did
other children. Moreover, the kids who were rated as the biggest bullies
actually performed better than average (Gini 2006b).
Pure bullies aren’t necessarily struggling in school
Some studies have reported that bullies are more likely to exhibit
poor “school adjustment" (e.g., Nansel et al 2004). But these studies
didn’t include any objective measurements of academic achievement.
What happens when we look how bullies perform on standardized academic tests?
British researchers examined over a thousand young school children (aged 6 to 9) and could find no link between being a bully and performing poorly on standardized academic tests (Woods and Wolke 2004).
fact, the results suggested that some bullies may be
better-than-average students. Kids who were “relational" bullies—the
bullies who engage in mostly “psychological warfare," like spreading
malicious gossip and excluding victims from social groups—had average or
better-than-average academic scores.
Other studies suggest that low achievement is linked with bully/victims, not pure bullies.
instance, a study of Finnish 5th grade students found that students
with poor literacy skills were somewhat more likely to be bullies than
were other students (Kaukiainen et al 2002). But researchers suspect
that bully/victims—not pure bullies—were more likely to have learning
And a study of over 3500 American kids (enrolled in
grades 3 through 6), found that bullies were more likely to be low
achievers (Glew et al 2005). But this was true only for
bully/victims—not pure bullies (Glew et al 2005).
Pure bullies have high social status
Bullies seem pretty confident and socially-adept. Where does this lead? Apparently, to higher social status.
study of Swiss children (aged 5 to 7) found that bullies had more
leadership skills than did children who were not involved in bullying
(Perren and Alsaker 2006). Moreover, the bullies belonged to larger
The trend continues among older kids.
In an Irish study, researchers assigned bullies high scores for sociability and leadership (Collins and Bell 1996).
in the study of American 6th graders mentioned above, students rated
the school bullies as the “coolest" kids in school (Juvoven et al 2003).
This was true for both types of bully. However, the effect was much
larger for pure bullies. Pure bullies were also perceived by teachers to
be the most popular students.
But high status doesn’t necessarily
mean that people like you. When asked which kids they preferred to
spend time with, students tended to name peers who were wholly
uninvolved in bullying.
A recent study of Dutch kids found the same thing: Bullies were perceived as more popular, but kids didn't really like bullies (Sijtsema et al 2008).
So what's the problem?
If pure bullies aren’t suffering from deficits in social reasoning, self-esteem, self-control, or social status….then just what is missing?
Empathy and moral engagement: The missing pieces?
New research points to old-fashioned answer. Bullies may simply have trouble with moral reasoning.
study found that bullies scored low on a test of empathic reactivity
(Gini 2006b). Other studies (Obermann 2011; Perren et al
2012; Pozzoli et al 2012) report that bullies are more likely to
• justify their behavior in terms of the consequences for themselves
• rely on rationalizations that make anti-social behavior seem acceptable
It might also mean changing the way bullies interpret the intentions of others. Research
shows that aggressive kids are more likely to perceive hostility in
neutral social situations, so it makes sense to teach these kids how to
re-interpret the intentions of other people (Hudley and Graham 1993).
But, most of all, it means taking clear stand against bullying.
bystanders do nothing, it sends the message that bullying is okay. When
bystanders—even peer bystanders—intervene, bullies tend to stop.
Andreou E. 2004. Bully/victim problems and their association with
Machiavellianism and self-efficacy in Greek primary school children. Br J
Educ Psychol. 74(Pt 2):297-309.
Collins, K., & Bell, R.
(1996). Peer perceptions of aggression and bullying behavior in primary
schools in Northern Ireland. Annals of the New York Academy of Science,
David CF and Kistner JA. 2000. Do positive
self-perceptions have a "dark side"? Examination of the link between
perceptual bias and aggression. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 28(4):327-37.
JK, Lindenberg S, and Veenstra R. 2008. Beyond the class norm: bullying
behavior of popular adolescents and its relation to peer acceptance and
rejection. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 36(8):1289-99.
2007. Associations between bullying behaviour, psychosomatic
complaints, emotional and behavioural problems. Journal of Paediatrics
and Child Health 44(9): 492 – 497.
Gini G. 2006a. Does empathy predict adolescents' bullying and defending behavior? Aggressive Behavior 33(5): 467 – 476.
Gini G. 2006b. Social cognition and moral cognition in bullying: What’s wrong? Aggressive Behavior 32: 528-539.
GM, Fan MY, Katon W, Rivara FP, and Kernic MA. 2005. Bullying,
psychosocial adjustment, and academic performance in elementary school.
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 159(11):1026-31.
Hudley C and Graham S.
1993. An attributional intervention to reduce peer-directed aggression
among African-American boys. Child Dev. 64(1):124-38.
Graham S, Schuster MA. 2003. Bullying among young adolescents: the
strong, the weak, and the troubled. Pediatrics. 112(6 Pt 1):1231-7.
A, Salmivalli C, Lagerspetz K, Tamminen M, Vauras M, Mäki H, and
Poskiparta E. 2002. Learning difficulties, social intelligence, and
self-concept: connections to bully-victim problems. Scand J Psychol.
Mynard H and Joseph S. 1997. Bully/victim problems
and their association with Eysenck's personality dimensions in 8 to 13
year-olds. Br J Educ Psychol. 67 (1):51-4.
Nansel TR, Craig
W, Overpeck MD, Saluja G, Ruan WJ and Health Behaviour in School-aged
Children Bullying Analyses Working Group. 2004. Cross-national
consistency in the relationship between bullying behaviors and
psychosocial adjustment. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 158: 730-736.
Obermann ML. 2011. Moral disengagement in self-reported and peer-nominated school bullying. Aggress Behav. 37(2):133-44.
S, Alsaker FD. 2006. Social behavior and peer relationships of victims,
bully-victims, and bullies in kindergarten. J Child Psychol Psychiatry.
Perren S, Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger E, Malti T, and Hymel S. 2012.
Moral reasoning and emotion attributions of adolescent bullies,
victims, and bully-victims. Br J Dev Psychol. 30(Pt 4):511-30.
Pozzoli T, Gini G, and Vieno A. 2012. Individual and class moral
disengagement in bullying among elementary school children. Aggress
Sijtsema JJ, Veenstra R, Lindenberg S, and
Salmivalli C. 2008. Empirical test of bullies' status goals: assessing
direct goals, aggression, and prestige. Aggress Behav. 2008 Oct 16.
[Epub ahead of print].
Sutton J, Smith PK, and Swettenham J.
1999. Social cognition and bullying: Social inadequacy or skilled
manipulation? Br J Dev Psychol 17: 435-450.
Woods S and White E.
2005. The association between bullying behaviour, arousal levels and
behaviour problems. J Adolesc. 28(3):381-95.
Woods S and Wolke D.
2004. Direct and relational bullying among primary school children and
academic achievement. Journal of School Psychology 42: 135-155.