Psychologists call them "externalizing" behaviors
-- acts of disruption, aggression, defiance, or anti-social intent.
Just about every parent has to cope with them at some point,
particularly during the toddler years. Young children are still developing the
ability to regulate their emotions and impulses, and need to learn what is
expected of them.
Research suggests that more than two-thirds of American preschoolers experience temper tantrums (Wakshlag et al 2014).
But some kids seem particularly prone to externalizing
behavior. How do tackle their disruptive behavior problems?
There isn't any single answer. Kids misbehave for different
reasons, and may respond differently to the same social input. But research
suggests a number of general principles we can use to check aggression and foster self control. Here are some evidence-based tips.
1. Tune into the big
picture: Kids need positive relationships to
stay connected and improve.
In some families, keeping the peace is a relatively simple job.
The kids are usually cooperative, which makes it easy for caregivers to stay upbeat
and cheerfully involved. The steady diet of positive family interactions makes
kids feel secure and connected, and more receptive to learning good social
It's harder when kids show disruptive, defiant, or
aggressive tendencies. These children need positive encouragement
to stay connected. But their misbehavior provokes us, makes us irritable,
angry, frustrated, or despairing. In a sense, defiant kids are being their own worst
enemies, because they're stuck with behavior patterns make people react
negatively. Parents are often pushed into counterproductive patterns themselves -- becoming
too punitive in some cases, or too disengaged in others.
What's the remedy? Clinical psychologists like Timothy
Cavell advise hassled parents to choose their battles. If your child has externalizing
behavior problems, you can't expect to police every aspect of his behavior. Instead,
think in terms of a disciplinary "quota system."
Enforce the strictest limits on aggressive, anti-social
behavior -- acts that cause damage, hurt feelings, or physical injury. Kids
need the clear message that this behavior is unacceptable. Studies suggest that kids who dabble in
aggression of any kind -- including non-physical aggression -- tend to escalate
if they aren't checked.
Address other types of misbehavior next, but only if you can
do so without tipping the balance. You want to make sure that most of your communication
seems supportive -- not rejecting, punitive, or forbidding. By focusing on the
overall emotional tone of the relationship -- instead of the details of the
latest, small transgression -- you are more likely to remain a positive
influence, and steer your child's development over the long-term.
2. Help kids develop socio-emotional skills, and steer kids away from
situations that overtax their current abilities.
It takes years for kids to develop a mature understanding of
emotions. They are works in progress -- still collecting data about how people
think and behave; still trying to figure out their own feelings. And when it
comes to showing patience, following directions, juggling competing demands, remembering
plans, and controlling their impulses, they are at a distinct disadvantage:
Their brains are still developing these abilities.
What happens when we forget this -- or inadvertently
overestimate a child's developmental limitations? Imposing age-inappropriate
standards, like expecting a 3-year-old to sit quietly during a long meal at a
restaurant, isn't just a recipe for conflict. If kids are regularly subjected
to such unrealistic expectations, they can lose ground in the bigger developmental
As noted above, children need a generally positive
atmosphere to stay connected, motivated, and attentive. To learn good
citizenship, they need to experience the social rewards of following directions
and regulating their own emotions. When we put them in situations that outstrip
their abilities, they miss these opportunities, and learn the wrong lessons:
that they can't meet our standards; that we're unfair or arbitrary; that our
insistence on cooperation means "I win, you lose."
So it's important to tune into your child's current skill
set, and avoid situations that demand too much. Giving kids tasks they can
actually handle -- tasks that are comfortably within their zone of development,
or just a bit challenging -- will teach them about social success, and give
them opportunities to grow. Researchers and therapists recommend these
developmentally sensitive tactics:
State your expectations clearly and calmly, and
put the emphasis on positive choices rather than prohibitions. Don't badger kids
with a lot of interference-- studies suggest that such bossy micro-management interferes
with the development of self-control (Clincy and Mills-Koonce 2013; Eisenberg
et al 2015). But if kids start going off track, provide them with friendly
reminders of what their supposed to be doing. They may lack the working memory
capacity and attention skills to stay focused.
Talk with kids about how emotions work. What
makes people angry or sad? How do can we soothe these feelings, or prevent them
from erupting in the first place? Kids who grow up discussing these topics tend
to have better outcomes, and classroom interventions designed to enhance
children's socio-emotional understanding report behavior improvements.
Don't try to impose a fast, adult pace on kids
who can't keep up. Kids have slower reaction times and take longer to
transition from one activity to the next. Allow more time for kids to put plans
into action, and before you make them switch activities, give them a few
minutes of warning.
Identify and eliminate hot button triggers. For
example, instead of pressuring your preschooler to share his favorite toy with
a visiting friend, put it away before the visit begins. Let the kids play with
something that is less emotionally "loaded."
Reward kids with encouraging, positive feedback
when they get things right. It's a powerful way to shape behavior. But be
mindful of what types of praise work, and what types backfire.
Remove distractions and unnecessary temptations.
It's hard to do your homework when you've got a video game console in your
It's no secret that sleep affects mood, but poor sleep
does more than make us cranky. It impairs our ability to read facial expressions -- a recipe for miscommunication and conflict (Soffer-Dudek et
al 2011). And research reveals persistent links between sleep trouble and externalizing behavior.
In one experiment, adolescents assigned to a schedule of restricted
sleep showed greater "oppositional behavior," like anger, arguing,
and spitefulness (Baum et al 2014). In another study, young children showing
early tendencies to resist authority seemed especially sensitive to the effects
of sleep loss: They were more likely than other poor sleepers to develop
externalizing behavior problems over time (Goodnight et al 2007).
Sleep is also linked with disruptive behavior problems in children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. In a recent study, researchers found that kids with sleep problems were more aggressive, irritable, and distracted (Mazurek and Sohl 2016).
And there is evidence that poor sleep gives rise to hyperactivity and attention deficits.
Preschoolers with sleep problems are more likely to develop these symptoms (Touchette et al 2007), and kids
diagnosed with ADHD can experience substantial deterioration when they don't sleep enough. In one study, a group of ADHD children were assigned to a regimen that reduced their regular, nightly sleep times by
one hour. After six days, kids went from being mildly symptomatic
to suffering from clinically significant impairment in attention skills (Gruber
et al 2011).
Moreover, studies suggest we can improve symptoms of
attention deficit and hyperactivity by treating a child's sleep problems. For
instance, researchers conducting a randomized, controlled trial found
that improving sleep in ADHD patients resulted in better classroom behavior and fewer externalizing behavior problems (Hiscock et al 2015). For some kids, improved sleep might eradicate symptoms altogether (Hvolby 2015).
For information about troubleshooting sleep problems, see
4. Look after yourself.
It's hard to stay calm and collected when your child is
throwing a tantrum, and your own experience of stress makes everything worse --
including your child's behavior. Studies show that kids are more likely to
improve when their parents adjust their own expectations, get support, and
reduce their own stress levels. For more information, see this article about parenting
kids with aggressive behavior problems, and these tips for relieving stress.
5. Create conditions that foster positive
We know that parental abuse and peer aggression is bad for
kids. Aggressors escalate over time. Victims are at high risk for developing
emotional disorders, like anxiety or depression. And for some, victimization
triggers externalizing behavior problems. Bullied children become bullies
But what about aggression between siblings? If your brother
hits or bullies you, is that somehow a benign experience -- part of the natural
process of growing up?
Modern studies answer this question with a resounding
"no." When researchers track child outcomes, they see that sibling
aggression has the same negative effects as other forms of aggression (Buist et
al 2013; Tucker 2013). Anti-social behavior between siblings fans the flames of
externalizing behavior, even after researchers take into account shared
genetics (Natsuaki et al 2009). And when kids fight each other, parenting
quality suffers. Stressed-out caregivers are more likely to use harsh tactics,
make arbitrary and unfair decisions, or become less involved in their
children's affairs (Feinberg et al 2012).
So kindness and cooperation should begin at home. Sibling
relationships improve when we teach and enforce principles of fair play
(Feinberg et al 2013).
By showing siblings how to negotiate their own comprises, and
intervening when such negotiations break down, we can create an environment
that supports the development of self-control. By teaching older kids about the
developmental limitations of their younger siblings -- and rewarding them for
acting with kindness and responsibility -- we can defuse jealousy.
6. Teach kids to revise their negative assumptions
Some people tend to read hostility in the intentions of
others, even when it isn't true. This
leads them to behave antagonistically, creating a self-fulfilling prophesy.
They provoke people who might otherwise have regarded them in a neutral or friendly
So it's important to help kids take a more flexible,
relaxed, and optimistic stance. Young children benefit when we point out
alternative explanations for apparently negatively behavior. She's not angry at
you, she's just having a bad day. He didn't mean to hurt you, he was just
play-fighting. Older kids may benefit
from lessons about the malleable nature of personality. People aren't wired to
be "good" or "bad." They are responsive to the environment,
capable of change, and influenced by circumstances.
When researchers taught adolescents about this
flexibility, kids didn't just become more forgiving of human behavior. They
also became less likely to perceive hostility in everyday, ambiguous acts. Kids
considering a hypothetical situation -- like having someone bump into them in a
crowded hallway -- were more likely to see it as accidental. And they were half
as likely to say they would react with retaliatory aggression (Yaeger et al
A similar study found that kids trained in the malleability of
personality responded differently to hypothetical scenarios of bullying.
Compared to students in a control group, they described themselves as less
likely to seek revenge (Yeager et al 2011).
7. Show kids how to
defuse their negative emotions by remembering the supportive people in their
You've heard about
telling angry children to take a deep breath and count to ten. That's good
advice. But research suggests another promising tactic: We
can teach kids to defuse their negative emotions with the power of thought --
In experiments where
volunteers were reminded of trusting social relationships -- by being shown
"feel good" images of people being kind and supportive -- something
happened in their brains: The threat-response system was temporarily
deactivated, making them less reactive to angry faces (Norman et al 2014).
In other studies,
researchers found that asking people to visualize their loved ones -- or
remember a time when they felt supported -- was enough to change their social
reactions. Subjects felt less aggressive, and more compassionate towards others
(Mikulincer et al 2001; Mukulincer et al 2005a; Saleem etal 2015). Even a few
subliminal reminders -- like the words "love" and "hug" flashing for a few milliseconds before your eyes -- can produce this effect
(Mikulincer et al 2005b).
To date, nobody has tested the phenomenon in children. But once kids are old enough to discuss and
conjure up happy memories, they may be to ready to practice this technique. And
long before that, we can help lay the groundwork by being responsive to their
8. Train kids to recognize - and reject - mechanisms of moral disengagement.
We often think of
anti-social behavior as a symptom of diminished empathy. But many acts of
aggression are committed by people with good empathic abilities and social
skills. They've got the psychological tools to avoid harming others, but they
don't use them. Instead, they've convinced themselves that they're behavior
isn't wrong (Gini et al 2014).
Albert Bandura has identified a number of mechanisms by
which people take themselves off the hook. For instance, people may sanction
torture because they believe it will provide the authorities with crucial
information. The end justifies the means. They might absolve themselves of any personal
responsibility. I was just following
orders. They may underestimate or trivialize the amount of harm their
actions cause. It's not a big deal. And
they may blame the victim, or dehumanize the people who suffer. They brought this on themselves. They aren't
like us. They don't feel things the way we do.
These might sound like grown-up rationalizations. But
studies show that school children are prone to them as well, particularly those
who engage in bullying and peer aggression. So there's reason to think we can
help children by teaching them to recognize moral disengagement in action --
giving them compelling examples, and encouraging them to analyze the
questionable justifications they see around them (Bustamente and Chaux 2014).
There is also evidence that tip #6 -- think about trusting
social relationships -- can help. When Dolly Chugh and her colleagues (2014)
asked volunteers to reflect on supportive loved ones, they found the experience
acted as a buffer against moral disengagement. Unlike members of a control
group, the security-primed volunteers became resistant to self-serving moral
disciplinary tactics that teach problem-solving.
Studies suggest that harsh punishment can lead kids to
develop progressively worse behavior problems. Certain types of criticism can
make kids think they are innately inferior or bad, and therefore helpless to
change. Kids who get spanked regularly (more than once per month) tend to
become more aggressive over time. And
shame tactics can breed resentment and anger, not remorse.
So what's a parent to do? Ignoring aggression is a bad idea.
As noted above, research suggests that parents who indulge aggression, or give
in to tantrums, are more likely to see their children's behavior deteriorate
over time. But there is another route: We can focus on teaching kids concrete
lessons -- about how to control their impulses, solve problems, negotiate
conflicts, and make amends.
For instance, when researchers compared different
disciplinary tactics, the most effective wasn't spanking, or scolding, or
telling a child to sit in a corner. The most effective tactics were those that
combined non-physical sanctions with reasoning
-- explaining the rules and their purpose; talking with kids about how to avoid
trouble (Larzelere and Kuhn 2005).
And there's good reason to think that teaching children
practical social skills -- like how to strike a compromise, or repair the
damage after a conflict -- may help kids avoid aggression and gain peer
acceptance. Experiments show that 6- and 7-year-olds are a lot more forgiving
when their transgressors apologize and attempt to make things right. If you've
knocked over another child's tower of blocks, helping to rebuild it might make
a big difference (Drell and Jaswal 2015).
10. Seek professional advice if something worries you, or if your child presents special challenges
Reasoning with your child might seem like a pipe-dream if
she's particularly defiant. It might seem impossible if he's got attention
problems or emotional difficulties. If your child has got you stymied -- or something worries you -- get professional advice.
Certain behaviors are red flags -- indicators that your child is at risk for an emotional or behavior disorder (Wakshlag et al 2014). For example, if your child has settled into a pattern of very frequent, lengthy, or intense temper tantrums -- or seems to lose his temper "out of the blue" -- it's a good idea to consult with your pediatrician. Researchers also urge parents to seek medical advice if observe children engaging in dangerous behavior.
But that doesn't mean you have to wait for these specific signs to get help.
As noted above, kids may develop disruptive behavior problems for a variety of reasons. Some kids might have trouble reading the motives and emotions of other people. Some kids might have trouble understanding their own emotions. Some kids might have learning or language delays. Children might suffer from hyperactivity, impulsiveness, attention deficits, working memory limitations, too much stress, or too little sleep. Whatever your child's particular
issues, it's likely that a child behavior specialist can help you better understand what's going on -- and find ways to improve the situation.
So ask your pediatrician or local school for information about
local diagnostic and counseling services, and don't let the matter drop if
these services fail to meet your needs. You might have to try more than one approach before you find the best fit.
When you're coping with a defiant child, it's normal to question whether you're being too permissive, too authoritarian, or vacillating between extremes. This guide to parenting styles may help you clarify your responses and whether they fit with your goals.
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