The science of gestures: Why "talking" with our hands can help children think and learn
© 2017 Gwen Dewar, Ph.D., all rights reserved
Do you motion with your hands when you talk? Most people do.
The movements come naturally to us, and often happen without any conscious
planning. We speak, and our hands get into the act.
Undoubtedly, a lot of this behavior is learned.
If you raise a child in Italy, she'll grow up learning
different gestures than if you raise her in Japan, Nigeria, or Canada.
She'll also learn different social norms about the
desirability of gesturing. By the age of two years, Italian children produce
about twice as many communicative gestures as do English-speaking Canadian kids
(Marentette et al 2016).
But cultural variation doesn't change the fact that
gesturing is a species-normal behavior. Like speech, music, or dance, gesture
is part of our biological heritage.
Children who are blind from birth use gestures when they
talk, even when speaking to other sightless people (Iverson and Goldin-Meadow
And fieldwork on the great apes suggests that our ancestors used their
hands to communicate long before the evolution of speech (deWaal and Pollick
2006; Byrne et al 2017).
But why do we do it nowadays? Is it mere hand-waving? Is it
a useless atavism, an evolutionary leftover that serves no modern purpose?
Research suggest otherwise.
As it turns out, our simple hand movements have a substantial
impact on the way we learn, reason, and solve problems.
- Babies exposed to lots of communicative gestures appear to
learn language more quickly, and acquire bigger vocabularies. It's helpful to
have a parent who is a good gesturer.
Young children also seem to benefit from making gestures. For instance, toddlers
who point are more likely to elicit helpful information from adults ("Oh!
That's a dog!"), which may explain why these children develop larger
vocabularies over time.
- And from elementary school through college, gesturing has
been found to help students learn -- from mastering new mathematical concepts,
to acquiring new vocabulary and reasoning about spatial relationships.
With all this evidence, we really should be in the business
of encouraging gesture, at least the kind that boosts communication and
intellectual performance. Far from being outmoded or redundant, gesture plays
an important role in our cognitive development.
Here are the details.
Babies benefit from gesturing
It's clear that gestures can help adults understand the
meaning of new words. That's why pantomime is effective, and it's the premise
of the classic parlor game, charades.
But do gestures have a substantial effect on language
learning in children?
There is good evidence in favor.
1. We know that young children can pick up on gestures
Experiments demonstrate that 2-year-olds pay attention to
adult gestures, and use them to figure out what actions adults are asking them
to perform (Novack et al 2015).
And deaf infants immersed in a sign language environment
develop language skills at rates similar to hearing infants exposed to speech.
So from an early age, children study our gestures, and
understand them to be communicative.
2. We know that kids can eventually learn to use gesture
to rapidly work out the meaning of a new word.
Whitney Goodrich and Carla Kam confirmed this in an
experiment on preschoolers. The researchers invented four verbs, and then
presented kids with puppet shows that demonstrated the meaning of these words.
For example, one show featured a stick toy pulling a puppet
along a winding path. Another featured the puppet getting spun around on a
Along with each puppet show, an adult experimenter introduced
the word being depicted by slipping it into her conversation, e.g.,
"Sam (the puppet) really likes to blip. Can you tell me
which toy lets Sam go blipping?"
Of course, the kids had never heard of "blipping"
before, but they could guess. And their guesses depended on what types of
gesture the experimenter used while she was talking. If she had traced her
finger along an imaginary, winding path, kids were more likely to choose the
stick toy (Goodrich and Kam 2008) .
3. Even before
children demonstrate this quick thinking, they appear to benefit via slower
In an experiment on 18- to 24-month-olds, researchers trained
babies to understanding the meaning of the word "under" by asking
them to place one item "under" another. Could you put the toy bear
under the table?
Some babies got the added help of an explanatory gesture.
The adult conspicuously placed one of her hands beneath the other as she spoke.
Other babies weren't exposed to a gesture, but instead were
shown a photograph. When the adult asked the babies to perform the task, she
also showed them a photo depicting the desired outcome (e.g., the bear sitting under
In tests that immediately followed training, researchers
observed no differences between groups. But when researchers tested the babies
again, 2-3 days later, the children exposed to gestures outpaced those in the photo group. They showed a stronger, more
flexible understanding of the word "under" (McGregor et al 2009).
4. Babies develop larger vocabularies when they communicate
with people who gesture.
When researchers have tracked language development, they
have found that the infants who make the biggest gains in vocabulary are the ones whose parents gesture a lot (Acredolo and Goodwyn 1988; Goodwyn et al
Moreover, children appear to learn language faster when they
have parents who score higher on objective measures of "referential
transparency," the ability to convey the meaning of a word through
nonverbal cues. In a study tracking 50 toddlers, researchers found this to be
the case even after controlling for a child's initial vocabulary size (Cartmill
et al 2012).
5. Babies who use lots of gestures tend to develop
more advanced skills.
Does your baby communicate a lot with this hands? If so, he's
more likely to utter his first multi-word sentence at an earlier age (Iverson
and Goldin-Meadow 2005; Ozçalişkan and Goldin-Meadow 2010; Goldin-Meadow 2014).
Gesturing babies also go on to amass larger vocabularies,
which may stem from their ability to engage caregivers in conversation.
As noted above, babies who make frequent use of pointing
tend to get more timely linguistic feedback. They see something that interests
them -- point at it-- and their caregivers respond by providing the appropriate
verbal label (Kovács et al ; Wu and Gros-Louis 2013).
Experiments show that
babies learn more quickly when we respond to their pointing in this way (Begus
et al 2014; Lucca and Wilbourne 2016).
All of this sounds pretty encouraging -- if you and your
baby are die-hard gesturers. But what if you aren't? Can you change your ways?
A recent study offers hope. Researchers paid a series of in-home
visits to fifteen babies (ranging between 16 and 20 months of age) over a
period of 6 weeks. During each visit, babies sat with an adult experimenter and
looked at a couple of picture books (LeBarton et al 2015).
The experimenter talked to the baby about the objects
depicted in the books. "Look at the
dress. That's a dress." But not every baby experienced exactly the
- Some babies watched as the experimenter pointed to the items
she spoke about.
- Some babies watched the adult point, and were also coaxed to
point at, or touch, the named items themselves.
- Some babies were randomly assigned to a control condition.
Nobody pointed; all the information was verbal.
Two weeks after the last session, researchers found that the
babies encouraged to gesture were now gesturing more at home.
Did that increase translate into better language learning? That's
hard to say, because the time frame of this study was so short, and the
sample size so small. Babies who
gestured during their lessons did, in fact, show the greatest growth in
vocabulary, but the effect wasn't quite strong enough to reach
statistical significance. Perhaps
future studies -- larger studies conducted over longer time periods --
will replicate these results.
Meanwhile, parents should feel motivated to engage their
babies with meaningful gestures, and to encourage their babies to respond in
kind. Smiles, praise, and responsiveness will help reinforce your baby's
attempts to communicate.
But what about later on? Do kids continue to benefit from
Gesture helps people perform spatial reasoning tasks
If you want to remember a new route, one way to do it is to simply
rehearse it through visualization. But merely imagining the route isn't as
effective as combining mental imagery with hand movements.
When researchers tested these two forms of rehearsal
head-to-head, they found that people encouraged to gesture learned with greater
accuracy than did people who were prevented from doing so. In fact, people who
gestured remembered new routes with greater accuracy than did people who drew
the routes on paper -- perhaps because the task of drawing introduces
distractions into the process (So et al 2014).
So it seems that gesture can help us visualize moving ourselves
through space. Can it also help us visualize the movement of other objects?
The ability to mentally rotate an object is a core spatial
skill, and there is evidence that gesture can indeed help.
For instance, in a study of 5-year-olds, the kids with the
best mental rotation skills were also the kids who spontaneously used their
hands during problem-solving (Ehrlich et al 2006).
And an experiment supports the idea that gesturing contributes
to better performance.
Mingyuan Chu and Sotaro Kita asked college undergraduates
to solve a set of visual rotation tasks, the sort of problems that require us to rotate three-dimensional objects in our "mind's eye."
But first, the researchers randomly assigned each student to one of three experimental conditions.
- In the first condition, students were instructed to use their hands as they
attempted the problems.
- In the second condition, students were free to use their hands, but they weren't
given any special instructions.
- In the third condition, students were told to sit on their hands.
These assignments made a big difference in the amount of
gesturing students performed. The students encouraged to gesture did so about
six times as often as the students in the second group. And of course the
students who sat on their hands produced no gestures at all.
But what the researchers really wanted to know was if all
that additional gesturing made any difference for spatial problem-solving, and
it did. The students who had been actively instructed to gesture made the
fewest number of errors (Chut and Kita 2011).
Gestures "free up" working memory
is a bit like the RAM of a computer. It's the ability to remember
information over a very brief interval (a few seconds), and it's what
permits us to keep our mind on a task.
Our ability to learn is constrained by the limits of working
memory (Brunken et al 2002). So anything that reduces the "cognitive load" on your
working memory -- anything that makes it easier for you to juggle multiple pieces of information at once -- may boost your ability to reason and learn.
And surprisingly, gestures may do that for us.
In one experiment, Susan Goldin-Meadow and her colleagues presented a group of children and adults with a concentration-straining challenge.
First, the researchers briefly presented people with a list
of items to remember. Then they asked these people to perform another task on the side: The volunteers had to look over a mathematical problem, and then explain its solution to another person.
During this step, the researchers
noted which people made spontaneous use of gestures during their mathematical
explanations. Then, at last, the researchers asked participants to spill the beans about that list. How many items could they still remember?
For both children and adults, the outcome was the same. The
people who had gestured more during their math explanations went on to recall
more items from the list.
The researchers concluded that expressing concepts with
speech and gesture uses up less working memory than expressing the same
concepts with speech alone (Goldin-Meadow et al 2001).
In other words, using your hands to talk is a strategy that
minimizes cognitive load, freeing up memory for other tasks.
Subsequent research has bolstered this conclusion.
suggest that gesturing helps people perform tasks that tap verbal working
memory skills, especially if they have low working memory capacities (Gillespie
et al 2014).
Gesturing is also linked with better performance on tests of visuo-spatial working memory (Wu and Coulson 2014; Morsella and Krauss 2004).
And when adults tell children to refrain from gesturing, kids perform notably worse on working memory tasks (Pine et al 2007).
Gesturing helps kids grasp and retain new lessons about
If gesturing helps clarify our spatial reasoning and
minimizes cognitive load, might it also help us learn mathematical concepts?
Mathematical tasks taps both spatial intelligence and working memory, so it
makes sense. And once again, the evidence is supportive.
Susan Cook and her colleagues tested some third and fourth
graders to see if they could solve simple algebra problems like this:
4 + 3 = ___ + 6
None of the children could. So the researchers randomly
assigned each child to receive one of three types of instruction:
- In the SPEECH condition, a teacher explained to the child,
"I want to make one side equal the other side," and she asked the child
to repeat the phrase.
- In the GESTURE condition, a teacher moved her left hand
under the left side of the equation, then moved her right hand under the right
side of the equation. Then the teacher asked the child to repeat these hand
- In the GESTURE + SPEECH condition, the teacher combined both
elements. The child was asked to repeat
the instructor's words and actions.
After training, kids were given a new algebra problem to
solve, and they were told to solve it using whatever method their teacher had
Children in all three groups — SPEECH, GESTURE, and GESTURE
+ SPEECH — showed improvements. They were more likely to arrive at a correct
solution immediately after instruction.
But something interesting emerged when the kids were
re-tested four weeks later:
The children who had shown immediate improvements after gesturing
— either alone, or in combination with speech — were more likely to maintain
their improvement four weeks later (Cook et al 2006).
In other words, kids who had learned with gestures did a
better job remembering the correct strategy.
Interestingly, these kids also showed evidence of transfer
-- of being able to apply their emerging knowledge to new contexts (Cook et al
Merely watching gestures can also help kids learn math
We've seen how observing gestures can help children learn
new vocabulary. Might it also help them learn mathematics?
Susan Cook and her colleagues were curious to find out if a
teacher's gesturing alone could make a difference. So they performed a new
variant of the mathematics experiment above, this time asking kids to merely
watch the adult instructor (Cook et al 2013).
In immediate post-testing, kids who received instruction
with gesture and speech outperformed kids who received only verbal instruction.
And the achievement gap widened when kids were tested 24 hours later,
suggesting that watching gestures helped kids encode the lesson in long-term
Cook has also replicated these effects with a mathematics
lesson delivered by a computer-generated, anthropomorphic, teaching avatar. Some
children in the experiment were randomly assigned to a teaching avatar that incorporated meaningful gestures into it's speech. Other kids received exactly the same lesson, except that the avatar
The students instructed by gesturing avatars went on to
learn and solve problems more quickly. As in the previous study, they were also
more likely to transfer their new knowledge to other contexts (Cook et al 2017).
What else can gesturing do for us?
In recent years, experiments have documented the usefulness
of gesture in encoding memories (Cook et al 2010). They have also indicated
that young children recall more information about interesting, autobiographical
events when we allow them to gesture (Stevanoni and Salmon 2005).
And experiments have revealed that people are better at
solving a sequential, logical puzzle (the Tower of Hanoi) when they use
gestures (Trofatter et al 2015).
Will future research uncover other benefits? That seems very
likely. For example, it's easy to imagine how gesturing might help students grasp
certain physics concepts. I expect we'll see studies investigating the use of meaningful gesture in science education.
But we may also discover some surprises.
Recent research has revealed some interesting correlations in a child's developing ability to tell coherent stories. Five-year-olds who use gesture to portray a character's perspective (like motioning downward with the hands to show that a character falls down) tend to develop more complex narrative skills later on.
Compared to other children, they are more likely in subsequent years to construct narratives that
recount events in chronological order, and to explain a character's actions in terms of his or her goals (Demir et al 2015).
The same correlation was not found for speech. Merely talking about actions from the character's viewpoint didn't predict later improvements in narrative structure.
Is it possible that the act of physically enacting another character's experiences -- "showing" as well as "telling" -- helps kids better understand that character?
Is it possible that it helps kids think more clearly about cause and effect, and develop better narrative skills? It's an intriguing idea that future studies may unravel.
What happens when we explicitly teach babies to talk with their hands? Learn more in this article about the possible benefits of teaching babies gestures.
In addition, you can find more evidence-based information about learning in these Parenting Science pages.
Alabali MW and Goldin-Meadow S.1993. Gesture speech mismatch
and mechanisms of learning: What the hands reveal about a child’s state of
mind. Cognitive Psychology 25(4): 468-523.
Alibali MW, Kita S, and Young AJ. 2000. Gesture and the process of
speech production: We think, therefore we gesture. Language and cognitive
processes 15(6): 593-613.
Acredolo, LP and Goodwyn SW. 1988. Symbolic gesturing in normal
infants. Child Development 59: 450-466.
Andrews J, Logan R, Phelan J. 2008. Milestones of Language
Development. Advance for Speech-Language Pathologists and Audiologists 18(2):
Bruncken R Steinbacher S, Plass JL, and Leutner D. 2002.
Assessment of cognitive load in multimedia learning using dual-task
methodology. Experimental Psychology 49(2): 109-119.
Byrne RW, Cartmill E, Genty E, Graham KE, Hobaiter C, Tanner
J. 2017. Great ape gestures: intentional communication with a rich set of
innate signals. Anim Cogn. 20(4):755-769.
Cartmill EA, Armstrong BF 3rd, Gleitman LR, Goldin-Meadow S,
Medina TN, Trueswell JC. 2013. Quality of early parent input predicts child
vocabulary 3 years later. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 110(28):11278-83.
Chu M and Kita S. 2011.The Nature of Gestures’ Beneficial Role in
Spatial Problem Solving. Journal of experimental psychology: General 140(1):
Cook SW, Duffy RG and Fenn KM. 2013. Consolidation and Transfer of
Learning After Observing Hand Gesture. Child Development 84(6): 1863-1871.
Cook SW, Friedman HS, Duggan KA, Cui J, Popescu V. 2017. Hand Gesture and Mathematics Learning: Lessons From an
Avatar. Cogn Sci. 41(2):518-535.
Cook SW and Goldin-Meadow S. 2006. The role of gesture in learning:
Do children use their hands to change their minds? Journal of Cognition and
Development 7(2): 211-232.
Cook SW, Mitchell Z, and Goldin-Meadow S. 2008. Gesture makes
learning last. Cognition 106:1047 - 1058.
Cook SW, Yip T K-Y, Goldin-Meadow S. 2010. Gesturing makes
memories that last. J Mem Lang. 63(4): 465–475.
Demir ÖE, Levine SC, Goldin-Meadow S. 2015. A tale of two
hands: Children's early gesture use in narrative production predicts later
narrative structure in speech J Child Lang. 42(3): 662–681.
deWaal FBM and Pollick AS. 2006. Ape gestures and language
evolution. PNAS 104(19): 8184-8189.
Ehrlich SB, Levine S, and Goldin-Meadow SA. 2006. The importance of
gesture in children's spatial reasoning. Developmental Psychology42: 1259 -
Gillespie M, James AN, Federmeier KD, Watson DG. 2014. Verbal
working memory predicts co-speech gesture: evidence from individual
differences. Cognition. 132(2):174-80
Goldin-Meadow S, Nusbaum H, Kelly SD and Wagner S. 2001. Explaining
math: gesturing lightens the load. Psychological Science 12(6):516-522.
Goodrich W and Hudson-Kam CL. 2008. Co-speech gesture as input in
verb learning. Developmental Science. Published online 13 August 2008.
Goodwyn, S.W., Acredolo, L.P., & Brown, C. 2000. Impact of
symbolic gesturing on early language development. Journal of Nonverbal
Behavior., 24, 81-103.
Iverson, J.M., Capirci, O., Volterra, V., & Goldin-Meadow, S.
(in press). Learning to talk in a gesture-rich world: Early communication of
Italian vs. American children. First Language.
Iverson JM and Goldin-Meadow S. 1998. Why people gesture when they
speak. Nature 396(6708): 228.
Iverson JM and Goldin-Meadow S. 2005. Gesture paves the way for
language development. Psychological Science 16(5): 367-371.
Kovács ÁM, Tauzin T, Téglás E, Gergely G, Csibra G. 2014.
Pointing as Epistemic Request: 12-month-olds Point to Receive New Information.
Kuhn LJ, Willoughby MT, Wilbourn MP, Vernon-Feagans L, Blair
CB; Family Life Project Key Investigators. 2014. Early Communicative Gestures
Prospectively Predict Language Development and Executive Function in Early
Childhood. Child Dev. 85(5): 1898–1914.
LeBarton ES, Goldin-Meadow S, Raudenbush S. 2015. Experimentally-induced
Increases in Early Gesture Lead to Increases in Spoken Vocabulary J Cogn Dev.
2015; 16(2): 199–220.
Lucca K and Wilbourn MP. 2016. Communicating to Learn:
Infants' Pointing Gestures Result in Optimal Learning. Child Dev. 2016 Dec 29.
doi: 10.1111/cdev.12707. [Epub ahead of print]
Marentette P, Pettenati P, Bello A, Volterra V. 2016. Gesture
and Symbolic Representation in Italian and English-Speaking Canadian 2-Year-Olds.
Child Dev. 87(3):944-61.
Morsella E, Krauss RM. 2004. The role of gestures in spatial
working memory and speech. Am J Psychol. 117(3):411-24.
Novack MA, Goldin-Meadow S, and Woodward AL. 2015. Learning from
gesture: How early does it happen? Cognition. 142: 138–147.
Ozçalişkan S, Goldin-Meadow S. Sex differences in language
first appear in gesture. Dev Sci. 2010 Sep 1;13(5):752-60.
Pine KJ, Bird H, and Kirk E. 2007. The effects of
prohibiting gestures on children's lexical retrieval ability. Dev Sci.
Ping R and Goldin-Meadow S. 2010. Gesturing saves cognitive
resources when talking about non-present objects. Cogn Sci. 34(4): 602–619.
Rowe ML and Goldin-Meadow S. 2009. Early gesture selectively
predicts later language learning. Dev Sci. 12(1):182-7.
Rowe ML, Ozcaliskan S, and Goldin-Meadow S. 2008. Learning
words by hand: Gesture's role in predicting vocabulary development. First
Language 28: 182 - 199.
So WC, Ching TH, Lim PE, Cheng X, Ip KY. 2014. Producing
gestures facilitates route learning. PLoS One. 9(11):e112543.
Stevanoni E and Salmon K. 2005. Giving memory a hand:
Instructing children to gesture enhances their event recall. Journal of
Nonverbal Behavior 29: 217–233.
Trofatter C, Kontra C, Beilock S, Goldin-Meadow S. 2015. Gesturing
has a larger impact on problem-solving than action, even when action is
accompanied by words. Lang Cogn Neurosci. 30(3): 251–260.
Wu YC and Coulson S2. 2014. Co-speech iconic gestures and
visuo-spatial working memory. Acta Psychol (Amst). 153:39-50.
Wu Z and Gros-Louis J. 2015. Caregivers provide more
labeling responses to infants' pointing than to infants' object-directed
vocalizations. J Child Lang. 42(3):538-61.
Content last modified 7/17
This article includes some text from a previous Parenting Science article by the same author.
Image of gesturing toddler and father by David R. Tribble / wikimedia commons
Image of preschooler in robot tee shirt by Gordon / flickr
Image of gesturing baby in green striped shirt by Quinn Dombrowski / flickr
Image of teacher and student by Fort Rucker / flicker
Image of chalkboard with light bulb by cristian carrara / flickr