If you grew up in a culture that uses diapers, infant toilet training might seem unconventional and exotic. But in traditional societies throughout the world -- in Asia, Africa, Eastern Europe, Latin America, and the Arctic -- infant training is the norm.
When babies need to urinate or defecate, their parents hold them, bare-bottomed, over a preferred target (like a waste receptacle, or an outdoor latrine). The parents signal the babies to proceed, and the babies respond (Boucke 2003; Duong et al 2013a; Sonna 2006; deVries and deVries 1977).
How do parents know when their babies need to eliminate?
There isn't any magic here. The parents pay close attention. They learn to read their babies' cues. And eventually, after multiple trials, babies learn to hesitate until their parents give them the signal -- usually a special vocalization, like "sheee-sheee," or "shuuuus" (Bouke 2003; deVries and deVries 1977).
In other words, it's all about communication -- what some folks call "elimination communication." And it's becoming more popular in Western countries, like the United States (Bender and She 2017).
But are these babies truly "toilet trained"?
depends on what you mean. Young babies can't walk, wipe, or dress
themselves. So they aren't "trained" in the sense of being capable of
taking independent trips to the toilet. But toilet sessions become more
coordinated, organized, predictable. And families can go "diaper free."
this a goal worth pursuing? When should parents begin infant toilet
training? What procedure(s) should they follow? And what does research
tell us about the development of bladder and bowel control? Is early
training a good choice for your baby?
Here are the details to help you decide. I cover the potential benefits of infant toilet training, and outline the general procedure associated with elimination communication. In addition, I provide a link to an alternative method of infant potty training, and review some of the developmental (and cultural) factors that can make infant training difficult.
Infant toilet training depends on establishing close communication about the baby's frequent needs to eliminate. It's time-consuming, but potentially rewarding in the same way that communication about feedings can be rewarding.
In addition, infant toilet training makes it possible for families to reduce -- or eliminate -- their usage of diapers. This means
It also means avoiding diaper rash and diaper-related infections.
And in the long-term? Parents who train early may avoid certain pitfalls, at least when compared with parents who delay training until children are over the age of two or three.
When kids have spent years wearing diapers, parents often face these difficulties:
Finally, there's some evidence that infant toilet training helps babies learn how to completely empty their bladders when they urinate (Duong et al 2013b). This is potentially important, because residual urine in the bladder can lead to urinary tract infections.
It isn't really a matter of "should." Some parents start right after birth (Duong et al 2013a; Boucke 2003). Others wait until 3-6 months (Schaefer and DiGeronimo 1997; Smeets et al 1985).
Yes. If your baby has reached the milestone of being able to sit up independently -- without being held in place, or propped up by objects -- you can try a different technique that makes us of an infant potty chair.
This approach has been investigated by Western researchers (Smeets et al 1985), and tested on a small number of babies -- with success. If you're interested, be sure to check out my Parenting Science guide to this alternative infant toilet training method,
In cultures that practice traditional infant training, infants complete training between 6-12 months (Duong et al 2013a; Boucke 2003; deVries and deVries 1977).
And in a study testing the alternative (potty chair) method, the participating infants completed training before they were 12 months old (Smeets et al 1985).
Granted, babies aren't miniature adults. They can't control elimination to the extent that we can. For example, in one study, researchers found that only 20% of children attained "complete" bladder and bowel control by the age of 2 years (Largo et al 1978).
But infant potty training does not require "complete" control. For training to be successful, babies need only follow some predictable patterns, and be capable of partial control.
requirements are met rather easily for bowel movements. After the newborn
period, bowel movements are relatively infrequent, and the warning
signs of an impending bowel movement are pretty easy to read. Parents and babies have time to react.
And for urination?
Granted, bladder training is more difficult. Infants have small bladder capacities and process large volumes of liquid. They urinate frequently, and it can be hard to tell when they are about to pee.
In addition, some young infants may have trouble coordinating their muscles.
They can contract the bladder wall (which increases pressure inside the bladder) and they can relax the urinary sphincter (which opens the urethra and permits urine to flow outside the body). But they may have trouble doing both at the same time. As a result, they may not completely empty their bladders with every voiding (Yeung et al 1995; Sillén et al 1996; Bachelard 1998).
But this doesn't mean that babies urinate in a random, haphazard way. On the contrary.
As noted above, babies are more likely to urinate at certain times during the day.
They are more likely to urinate after feedings. They are also more likely to pee when they are fully awake, or transitioning to waking. Babies tend not to urinate when they are in "quiet sleep" -- an infant sleep stage analogous to our adult stage of "deep" sleep (Yeung et al 1995; Wen and Tong 1998).
And just as importantly, baby bladders aren't hopelessly weak or erratic.
The muscles of the bladder wall are usually stable, contracting only around the time of urination (Yeung et al 1995; Wen and Tong 1998). And when researchers have tried to provoke healthy newborns to urinate by manually pressing their bladders, it didn't work. The bladders didn't leak (Gladh et al 2000).
So research refutes the notion that baby bladders are totally uninhibited (Sillén 2001; Yeung et al 1995).
Infant urination is not merely an automatic reflex (Sillén 2001; Yeung et al 1995). And that's why infant potty training -- relative dryness achieved through parental supervision -- is possible.
The short answer is: Yes.
Infant toilet training depends on the close proximity and vigilance of the caregiver. It is unquestionably time-consuming.
At birth, the average infant pees approximately 20 times a day (Geoller et al 1981). The frequency decreases over time, so some authors recommend that parents delay infant training until the third month (Schaefer and diGeronimo 1997). However, bladder capacities vary, and some infants void very frequently throughout the toddler period. Other infants dribble soft stools throughout the day. Parents must weigh these factors accordingly.
Next, consider the mess.
Although infant waste is less smelly than toddler waste (Sonna 2006), it’s still messy. Some advocates argue that infant toilet training is less messy than diapering, because diapering forces the parent to clean up every time a baby poops (DiaperFreeBaby.org 2006).
But I think this misses the point that concerns most Westerners, which is that diaper-free babies may soil furniture, rugs, and other items that are rather difficult to clean.
Parents can minimize the mess by keeping babies away from such items.
Alternatively, they can adopt the potty chair-based method of infant toilet training.
Or simply keep their babies in diapers during the early phases of training.
I think it likely comes down to a difference in attitude.
From Kenya (deVries and deVries 1977) to Bali (Diener 2000), parents don't consider the occasional accident a big deal. Nobody minds much if a little baby urine gets on their clothes or floor. Accidents happen. And cleaning up is part of parenting.
And just as importantly, traditional, "diaper-free" societies are often more tolerant of small children eliminating in public. Local customs make it easier for parents to train.
In China, young children wear pants with an open seam in the back so kids can squat and go when the need arises. Among the Ifaluk of Oceania, toddlers can pee just about anywhere as long as it's outside (Le 2000).
Attitudes and customs in the West are less supportive of infant potty training. This needn't deter motivated Western parents. But it's obvious that infant training isn't for everyone.
Whether you plan to train early or late, you will need to exercise patience, good humor, and gentleness. There will be accidents and setbacks. No one should attempt infant toilet training without a clear understanding of the work involved.
Despite the difficulties, some parents are proving that it's possible to practice infant toilet training in the West. Books, websites, and online communities offer advice and psychological support. Savvy parents swap tips about where to buy Chinese-style training pants or how to survive car travel.
For these parents, the advantages of infant toilet training -- no diapers, no rashes -- make the extra work worthwhile.
And for parents who don't plan to train their infants, "elimination communication" is nonetheless instructive.
It reminds us that diapers are not a necessary or natural part of infancy. Nor is diaper rash or diaper dependency. Babies who never wear diapers don't have to be cajoled back out of them when they are older.
I've seen a few questionable claims made about infant toilet training that merit discussion. So I want to address them here.
First, I can find no evidence that infant toilet training makes people into better, more sensitive parents.
Nor have I run across any studies suggesting that potty training of any kind--infant or otherwise--improves the parent-child relationship.
I assume that the term "elimination communication" refers to communication about elimination, not emotions or profound ideas. If people think it implies more than that, they shouldn't.
Second, I've not found any studies suggesting that infant toilet training -- when carried out in the manner noted above -- has any meaningful, long-term, developmental impact on a child's life.
As noted above, there's evidence that it helps babies develop healthy voiding patterns at an earlier age (Duong et al 2013b). And it's logical to assume that trained infants would be less at risk for developing rashes and diaper-related infections (Bender and She 2017).
But there's no reason to think that infant toilet training will alter your child's psychology, for better or for worse. You can read more about it in this Parenting Science article about the timing of toilet training.
Finally, it bears repeating that "infant toilet training" is a potentially misleading term.
Babies don't get trained in the way that older children do. Instead, parents learn to anticipate when their babies are ready to void and babies learn that a specific sound means "go ahead and urinate now."
Laurie Boucke provides a detailed account of infant toilet training in her how-to book, Infant Potty Training: A gentle and primeval method adapted to modern living (2002; White-Boucke publishing).
includes photos and sketches illustrating techniques, as well as a
section on cross-cultural studies. An abridged version of this book is
available under the title Infant potty training: With and without
diapers—the natural way (2003; White-Boucke publishing).
Undecided? There are plenty of other times to start training. For other options besides infant toilet training, check out my article on different potty training ages.
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Content of "Infant toilet training" last modified 9/2020
title image by SeventyFour / istock
image of parent holding baby over a plastic tub for urination by shutterstock
Image of toddler wearing traditional, open-crotch pants by
Kolumbusjogger / wikimedia commons