Parenting stress puts a strain on the whole family -- sapping patience, damaging relationships, eroding well-being. What can we do about it?
Parents are often urged to get more social support, and of course that's an excellent idea. Knowing
you've got back up, even if it's just somebody who can talk constructively with
you about your troubles, can protect you from the effects of toxic stress. But most parents lacking social support are painfully aware of the fact. The problem is that quality social support is like a lot of other resources: We don't all have equal access.
You might try enrolling in parenting classes. Studies indicate that parenting classes can reduce your feelings of anger, guilt, and stress -- particularly if your child has difficult behavior problems (Barlow et al 2014; Furlong et al 2012; Feinberg et al 2014). But the effects usually fade after the classes end -- suggesting that it's the ongoing social connections that matter. Once those are gone, the stress tends to return.
So while it's advisable to make positive, new social connections -- reach out to friendly neighbors, find a support group, meet up with like-minded parents who won't judge or antagonize you -- it's important to know that there are a lot of other things you can do to alleviate your stress.
Here are some suggestions inspired by the latest research, 10 evidence-based tips for coping with parenting stress.
1. Ration your exposure to negative thoughts and negative media.
It's natural to look for patterns. If a child is
temperamental, defiant, or high-strung, you may be persuaded that his next move
will be negative one. It's also natural to pay more attention to potential
threats when you're feeling upset, angry, or alarmed. Stress makes people zero in on the bad stuff.
But your beliefs and biases can become self-fulfilling
prophecies. If you assume the worst, you're liable to provoke negative behavior
from other people. You're also more likely to experience a downward spiral of
After a very brief exposure to negative emotional content, people tend to pay more attention to upsetting images,
threatening words, and negative feedback (Cartwright-Hatton et al 2014; Forbes
and Leitner 2014). They replay bad memories or worry about the future. Such
thoughts activate the stress circuits in the brain, causing even more anxiety and gloom. A single trigger -- an angry comment, an unpleasant reminder, or a distressing anecdote -- might be enough to set the process in motion.
Under certain conditions of crisis, this may be helpful.Switching to threat mode is a good idea when a lion is stalking you. But in other cases, you're much worse off. Overdosing on threatening information and bad news doesn't just spike your immediate stress levels. It can also undermine your ability to think constructively and solve problems. And that hurts everyone -- you, your family, your neighbors, and coworkers.
This suggests a basic strategy for protecting yourself: Avoid unnecessary exposure to signals that drag you down. Switch off disturbing media; steer clear of hostile, rude, or judgmental people; consider taking a new route to work if it means avoiding noise, pollution, hassles, hostility, and other stressors.
2. Be a "good news" junkie
seen how negative messages can send your stress response into a
tailspin. The reverse is also true: We can induce good moods by
downloading positive content to our brains.
So seek out pleasant social
interactions, pay attention to your child's smiles, and seize opportunities to
show physical affection. Reflect on happy memories, read uplifting stories, share jokes, and
pet the family dog.
of these things have been shown to nudge brain
chemistry away from stress and towards a state of calm and well-being
(Uvnäs-Moberg 2003; Mizugaki et al 2015; Norman et al 2014; Bennet et al
2003; Nagasawa et al
In fact, bearing witness to positive social messages may help fill the void left by missing friends and family. Focusing acts of kindness and social support -- even those we see
performed by strangers in a photograph -- can deactivate the stress
response (Norman et al 2014).
3. Use insights from psychology to help your future self
In the comic novels of P. G. Wodehouse, manservant Jeeves always knows what people will need -- even before they do. You can take steps to become your own Jeeves by applying the lessons of modern psychology. How are you going to feel in a future situation? Experiments indicate that people are pretty bad at anticipating their future discomforts. When we're feeling sated, we have trouble grasping how hungry we'll get later -- so we don't plan accordingly. When we're feeling rested, we discount how terrible we'll feel if we don't get enough sleep.
We think we're good at predicting these things, but when researchers compare our predictions to real outcomes, it's clear that we underestimate our future needs. So analyze what goes wrong, and make a deliberate, conscious effort to help out your future self. Are the kids going to fight over that particular game? Then don't bring it with you. Is that difficult relative going to stress you out? Decide ahead of time what you will do about it. Will the noise make you crazy? Bring ear plugs.
4. Allow for more time to get things done
Time pressure is a universal stressor, but it hits some parents particularly hard. Researchers in Sweden report that mothers are more burdened by time pressure than fathers, and the women most affected are either highly educated, financially stressed, or lacking in social support (Gunnarsdottir et al 2014; Gunnarsdottir et al 2015).
You might think you can't afford to change your schedule, but consider: The stress imposed by time pressure can be toxic (Möller et al 2005), and one of the better-replicated findings in psychology is that people habitually underestimate how long it takes things to get done (Buehler et al 2010). Moreover, compared with adults, young children take longer to react, longer to check their impulses and longer to learn (Lee et al 2015; Yim et al 2013). So it's likely that many families would benefit from adjusted expectations. If running late is driving you crazy, start earlier, and don't assume your little slow-poke is trying to thwart you.
5. When bad things
happen, re-appraise the situation
Sometimes it doesn't matter how many good thoughts you
think: Stressful things happen. But even then, there is a lot you can do to
show that people handle stress better when they reconsider the situation from a
new angle (Troy et al 2010).
example, HIV patients have better quality of life when
they focus on the good things they experience, like improvements in
personal relationships (Moscowitz et al 2009; Caracco et al 2005). And
it appears that even a little positive thinking can make a measurable
difference in how we feel.
study, researchers asked college students to spend 15 minutes writing about
the most stressful event currently affecting their lives. Half the students were told only to explore their feelings; the other
half were asked to engage in full-blown, positive cognitive reappraisal, to
analyze the challenges and opportunities presented by their stressor, and to
view their coping strategies in a positive light.
afterwards, the researchers evaluated emotional
and psychosomatic symptoms in each student. What did they learn?
Students who'd practiced cognitive reappraisal felt better than did
students who'd merely rehashed their emotions (Batenberg and Das 2013).
Just as interesting, the researchers
discovered they could improve the moods of people in the "emotional
rehash" group by
giving them this simple bit of upbeat feedback:
"Thanks for telling me your story. I admire the
way you dealt with this situation. Learning from these experiences is very
important. Whenever you will experience something similar, you know better how
to deal with it. I wish you good luck in the future."
By contrast, students
experienced no improvements when they received mere sympathy:
"Thanks for telling me your story. I think it
was an impressive story. It must have been intense to experience something like
that. I experienced something quite similar, and I recognize a lot in your
story. I understand how it must have felt and the impact it must have had on
your life. Take care."
So positive cognitive
reappraisal can help us bounce back, and that may be why parents who use
cognitive reappraisal are less likely to engage in counterproductive,
over-reactive discipline (Lorber 2012).
But what if there isn't
a silver lining to think about, not even the prospect of a lesson learned?
There is another type of cognitive reappraisal that doesn't focus on sunshine.
It's what happens when we stop dwelling on our personal emotional reactions,
and try to instead to view the situation with more objectivity and detachment.
It's not the same as suppression, because we don't try to bottle up our
feelings. But we try to step outside ourselves and see the big picture,
reflecting, for example, that loss is part of life (Shiota and Levenson 2012).
6. Is your sense of
empathy stressing you out? Get in touch with the more clear-headed,
problem-solving side of your empathic nature.
When your kid is miserable, you feel her pain, and that can
be a good thing: It may motivate you to help. But the trouble with this sort of
empathy -- what psychologists call "affective empathy" -- is that
it's a double-edged sword.
"Feeling the pain" might inspire you to be
compassionate, but it might also push you to the edge. That's probably why parents who
rate themselves as highly empathic can become over-reactive when their kids are
upset (Emery et al 2013). They get too stressed out, and the results can lead
to them to become snappish, harsh, or controlling (Joosen et al 2013).
S. Shaun Ho and his colleagues have used hormone tests and brain scans to better understand what's going on. In a study
asking mothers to participate in a parenting simulation game, women with lots
of affective empathy got a bigger hit
of cortisol when they had to make decisions about distressed, unhappy
kids. They also experienced heightened activity in parts of the hypothalamus
and amygdala, regions of the brain linked with anxiety and stress (Ho et al
So affective empathy causes stress, and that can undermine
parenting. But that doesn't mean we'd be better off as sociopaths.
There is another type of empathy, called cognitive empathy,
that involves taking another person's perspective and imagining what would make
him feel better. It's more cerebral and reflective, and it doesn't rev up the
stress response system:
In Ho's study, moms who emphasized
cognitive empathy showed the least stress reactivity during decision making,
and their judgment calls were more accurate.
suggests we shouldn't feel guilty when we step back from our children's
problems and try to see them in a more objective light. We don't have
to live their bad moods to be sensitive. On the contrary, we might
actually serve kids better by practicing a little detachment.
7. Look for practical sleep solutions, but don’t stress about lost hours and fatigue.
Poor sleep makes life difficult, so you want to fix sleep
problems whenever you can. But some disruptions are inevitable, especially when
you've got young children. What should you do?
By now it should be clear what not to do. Getting resentful, ruminating or worrying about your
inability to function the next day isn't going to help. As we've already seen,
negative thoughts activate your brain's stress circuits, so worrying will make
it even harder to fall asleep when you finally get the chance. Besides, your
kids are likely to sense your emotions, and that will make it harder for them
to sleep (Teti et al 2010).
This leads to an irony: People struggling with poor sleep are better off when they give up. Not
on trying to find practical solutions to their children's sleep
problems. (With a little troubleshooting, you might hit on a winning strategy. Read more about it here.) Instead, what's helpful is
giving up on being a control freak, on straining to get everything
right. Research shows that people adapt better when they avoid
making emotional judgments about the state of their tiredness, when they
stop calculating their hours, stop worrying about tomorrow, and
focus instead on acceptance and making the best of things. In fact, practicing
this change of attitude is an effective treatment for insomnia (Ong et
8. Help children cope with their own stresses, and teach
siblings how to work out their differences
Kids also need to learn to get along with siblings, and it pays to be proactive. When Nyantri Ravindran and colleagues showed mothers how to teach their young children conflict resolution skills -- like how to see things from your sibling's perspective, how to negotiate, and how to calm yourself down when you're feeling angry or distressed -- the researchers didn't just see a reduction in sibling aggression. They also observed improvements in the ways that mothers handled their own emotions (Ravindran et al 2015).
time for inspiration
Some things make us happy because they offer us
immediate, selfish pleasure; other things offer a more lasting, meaningful
type of happiness. Is it all the same when it comes to stress relief? Research suggests otherwise. Meaningful happiness seems to block toxic stress from reprogramming our DNA and increasing our
risk of stress-related disease. By contrast, self-gratifying happiness does not (Frederickson et al 2015).
if your busy life has prompted you to sacrifice your personal happiness, consider: Your sense of meaning or purpose isn't a selfish treat -- a box of chocolates to be sacrificed in the name of family duty. Experiences that bring meaningful happiness are a
crucial tool for keeping yourself fit
and your family protected from second-hand stress. Bring more
meaningful happiness in your life by
finding ways to re-connect with the experiences, people, and goals that
really matter to you.
10. Get out and exercise -- but make it fun.
Spending time outdoors, in a natural environment, can reduce tension, anger,
confusion, and depression (Thomson Coon et al 2011). Aerobic exercise protects the body against the effects of physical and
psychological stress (Spalding et al 2004). It may also boost your mood, lower anxiety levels
(Altchilder and Motta 1994), and stimulate the growth of new neurons in the brain.
But experiments suggest these results depend on free choice. When exercise is
forced -- involuntary -- it can increase stress levels (Li at al 2014).
Altchiler L, Motta R.1994. Effects of aerobic and nonaerobic exercise on anxiety, absenteeism, and job satisfaction. J Clin Psychol. 50(6):829-40.
Baker BL, McIntyre LL, Blacher J, Crnic K, Edelbrock C, Low C. 2003. Pre-school children with and without developmental delay: behaviour problems and parenting stress over time. J Intellect Disabil Res. 47(Pt 4-5):217-30.
Barlow J, Smailagic N, Huband N, Roloff V, and Bennett C. 2014. Group-based parent training programmes for improving parental psychosocial health. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 May 17;5: CD002020.
Batenburg A and Das E. 2014. An experimental study on the effectiveness of disclosing stressful life events and support messages: when cognitive reappraisal support decreases emotional distress, and emotional support is like saying nothing at all. PLoS One. 22;9(12):e114169
Bennett MP, Zeller JM, Rosenberg L, and McCann J. 2003. The effect of mirthful laughter on stress and natural killer cell activity. Altern Ther Health Med. 9(2):38-45.
Buehler R, Griffin D and Peetz J. 2010. "The Planning Fallacy: Cognitive, Motivational, and Social Origins" Advances in Experimental Social Psychology Academic Press 43: 9.
Carrico AW, Antoni MH, Weaver KE, Lechner SC, and Schneiderman N. 2005. Cognitive-behavioural stress management with HIV-positive homosexual men: Mechanisms of sustained reductions in depressive symptoms. Chronic Illness. 1:207–215.
Cartwright-Hatton S, Abeles P, Dixon C, Holliday C, and Hills B. 2014. Does parental anxiety cause biases in the processing of child-relevant threat material? Psychol Psychother 87(2):155-66.
Dix T and Yan N. 2014. Mothers' depressive symptoms and infant negative emotionality in the prediction of child adjustment at age 3: testing the maternal reactivity and child vulnerability hypotheses. Dev Psychopathol. 26(1):111-24.
Emery HT, McElwain NL, Groh AM, Haydon KC, and Roisman GI. 2013. Maternal dispositional empathy and electrodermal reactivity: Interactive contributions to maternal sensitivity with toddler-aged children. J Fam Psychol. 28(4):505-15.
Essex MJ, Boyce WT, Hertzman C, Lam LL, Armstrong JM, Neumann SM, Kobor MS.2013. Epigenetic vestiges of early developmental adversity: childhood stress exposure and DNA methylation in adolescence. Child Dev. 84(1):58-75.
Feinberg E, Augustyn M, Fitzgerald E, Sandler J, Ferreira-Cesar Suarez Z, Chen N, Cabral H, Beardslee W, Silverstein M. 2014. Improving maternal mental health after a child's diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder: results from a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Pediatr. 168(1):40-6.
Forbes CE and Leitner JB. 2014. Stereotype threat engenders neural attentional bias toward negative feedback to undermine performance. Biol Psychol. 102:98-107.
Fredrickson BL, Grewen KM, Algoe SB, Firestine AM, Arevalo JM, Ma J, and Cole SW. 2015. Psychological well-being and the human conserved transcriptional response to adversity. PLoS One. 10(3):e0121839.
Furlong M, McGilloway S, Bywater T, Hutchings J, Smith SM, Donnelly M.2013. Cochrane review: behavioural and cognitive-behavioural group-based parenting programmes for early-onset conduct problems in children aged 3 to 12 years (Review).Evid Based Child Health. 8(2):318-692.
Gunnarsdottir H, Bjereld Y, Hensing G, Petzold M, Povlsen L. 2015. Associations between parents' subjective time pressure and mental health problems among children in the Nordic countries: a population based study. BMC Public Health 10;15:353.
Gunnarsdottir H, Petzold M, and Povlsen L. 2014. Time pressure among parents in the Nordic countries: a population-based cross-sectional study. Scand J Public Health 42(2):137-45.
Ho SS, Konrath S, Brown S, and Swain JE. 2014. Empathy and stress related neural responses in maternal decision making. Front Neurosci. 8:152.
Joosen KJ, Mesman J, Bakermans-Kranenburg MJ, and van Ijzendoorn MH. 2013. Maternal overreactive sympathetic nervous system responses to repeated infant crying predicts risk for impulsive harsh discipline of infants. Child Maltreat. 18(4):252-63.
Kingston D, McDonald S, Austin MP, Tough S. 2015. Association between Prenatal and Postnatal Psychological Distress and Toddler Cognitive Development: A Systematic Review. PLoS One. 10(5):e0126929.
Kingston D, Tough S, and Whitfield H. 2012. Prenatal and postpartum maternal psychological distress and infant development: a systematic review. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev. 43(5):683-714.
Lee HW, Lo YH, Li KH, Sung WS, Juan CH. 2015. The relationship between the development of response inhibition and intelligence in preschool children. Front Psychol. 6:802.
Li JY, Kuo TB, Yen JC, Tsai SC, and Yang CC. 2014. Voluntary and involuntary running in the rat show different patterns of theta rhythm, physical activity, and heart rate. J Neurophysiol. 111(10):2061-70.
Lorber MF. 2012. The role of maternal emotion regulation in overreactive and lax discipline. J Fam Psychol. 26(4):642-7.
Melnyk BM, Alpert-Gillis L, Feinstein NF, Crean HF, Johnson J, Fairbanks E, Small L, Rubenstein J, Slota M, and Corbo-Richert B. 2004. Creating opportunities for parent empowerment: program effects on the mental health/coping outcomes of critically ill young children and their mothers. Pediatrics 113(6):e597-607.
Meyer JS and Hamel AF. 2014. Models of stress in nonhuman primates and their relevance for human psychopathology and endocrine dysfunction. ILAR J. 55(2):347-60.
Mizugaki S, Maehara Y, Okanoya K, and Myowa-Yamakoshi M. 2015. The Power of an Infant's Smile: Maternal Physiological Responses to Infant Emotional Expressions. PLoS One. 11;10(6):e0129672.
Moles A, Sarli C, Bartolomucci A, and D'Amato FR. 2008. Interaction with stressed mothers affects corticosterone levels in pups after reunion and impairs the response to dexamethasone in adult mice. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 33(4):462-70.
Moskowitz JT, Hult JR, Bussolari C, and Acree M. 2009. What works in coping with HIV? A meta-analysis with implications for coping with serious illness. Psychological Bulletin. 135:121–141.
Nelson SK, Kushlev K, and Lyubomirsky S. 2014. The pains and pleasures of parenting: When, why, and how is parenthood associated with more or less well-being? Psychological Bulletin 140: 846-895.
Nelson SK, Kushlev K, English T, Dunn EW, and Lyubomirsky S. 2013. In defense of parenthood: Children are associated with more joy than misery. Psychological Science 24: 3-10.
Nephew BC and Bridges RS. 2011. Effects of chronic social stress during lactation on maternal behavior and growth in rats. Stress. 14(6):677-84.
Norman L, Lawrence N, Iles A, Benattayallah A, and Karl A. 2014. Attachment-security priming attenuates amygdala activation to social and linguistic threat Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. pii: nsu127.
Ong JC, Ulmer CS, and Manber R. 2012. Improving sleep with mindfulness and acceptance: a metacognitive model of insomnia. Behav Res Ther. 50(11):651-60.
Parker KJ and Maestripieri D. 2011. Identifying key features of early stressful experiences that produce stress vulnerability and resilience in primates. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 35(7):1466-83.
Puff J and Renk K. 2014. Relationships among parents' economic stress, parenting, and young children's behavior problems. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev. 2014 Dec;45(6):712-27.
Ravindran N, Engle JM, McElwain NL, and Kramer L. 2015. Fostering parents’ emotion regulation through a sibling-focused experimental intervention. Journal of Family Psychology 29(3): 458-46.
Shiota MN and Levenson, RW. 2012. Turn down the volume or change the channel? emotional effects of detached versus positive reappraisal. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 103: 416-429.
Snyder J, Cramer A, Afrank J, and Patterson GR. 2005. The contributions of ineffective discipline and parental hostile attributions of child misbehavior to the development of conduct problems at home and school. Dev Psychol. 41(1):30-41.
Sturge-Apple ML, Skibo MA, Rogosch FA, Ignjatovic J and Heinzelman W. 2011. The impact of allostatic load on maternal sympathovagal functioning in stressful child contexts: Implications for maladaptive parenting. Development and Psychopathology 23:831-844.
Teti DM, Kim BR, Mayer G, and Countermine M. 2010. Maternal emotional availability at bedtime predicts infant sleep quality. J Fam Psychol. 24(3):307-15.
Thompson Coon J, Boddy K, Stein K, Whear R, Barton J, and Depledge MH. 2011. Does participating in physical activity in outdoor natural environments have a greater effect on physical and mental wellbeing than physical activity indoors? A systematic review. Environ Sci Technol. 45(5):1761-72.
Troy AS, Shallcross AJ, and Mauss IB. 2013. A person-by-situation approach to emotion regulation: Cognitive reappraisal can either help or hurt, depending on the context. Psychological Science 24: 2505-2514.
Yim H, Dennis SJ, and Sloutsky VM. 2013. The development of episodic memory: items, contexts, and relations. Psychol Sci. 24(11):2163-72.
Content of "Parenting stress: 10 evidence based tips" last modified 12/2016
Image credits for "Parenting stress: 10 evidence-based tips"