Studies suggest we can prevent summer learning loss by engaging kids in summertime reading, math games, and hands-on STEM activities. But the benefits depend on making sure kids are truly stimulated -- and having fun!
Here are the details, and tips for creating a rewarding, playful, educational summer.
Some call it "summer learning loss," others call it the "summer slide."
Either way, the idea is the same: Without regular practice, new skills and knowledge fade. So many school kids experience reversals over the extended summer break.
The phenomenon has been documented in a number of countries, including Austria, Germany, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States (Paechter et al 2015; Meyer et al 2015; Jesson et al 2014; Shinwell and Defeyter 2017).
How much learning is lost?
Studies suggest that kids may lose anywhere from 25-50% of their school-year gains in mathematics (Paechter et al 2015; Thum and Hauser 2015; Cooper et al 1996).
Put another way, the average child may lose over two months' worth of mathematical knowledge over the summer.
Children can backtrack in language skills, too -- including reading, writing, and spelling (Thum and Hauser 2015; Burgin and Hughes 2008; Shinwell and Defeyter 2017)
But overall, losses in reading ability tend to be less dramatic than losses in mathematical ability.
Why? It's probably a reflection of the "use it or lose it" phenomenon. During the summer, kids are more likely to continue reading -- at least a little. They are less likely to practice their mathematical skills.
Some researchers suggest that we make major changes in our schools. They propose lengthening the school year, or replacing the long, summer hiatus with several shorter vacation periods distributed throughout the year.
But we don't have to wait for such changes to help our children. Nor do we have to turn the summer into a time of regimented, structured learning sessions.
Here are some suggestions for making the most of the summer -- without sacrificing summer fun.
Summer reading is important, but it doesn't always boost skills.
For example, in one study, a summer reading program failed to have any effect on children's literacy skills. Why? The children who participated got to choose their own books, and they consistently chose books that were too easy for them (Kim and Guryan 2010).
So when selecting books, it's crucial to make sure you're child is excited by the content. But you also want reading material that will stretch your child's skills -- introduce some new words and ideas.
Need help finding the right stuff? Visit your local library and talk with the children's librarian.
It's unlikely that
most kids will spontaneously practice the sorts of skills that will
prevent learning loss in mathematics. And practice really matters. But
don't you have to hold daily lessons, or turn the summer into a tedious
series of drills.
Studies show that learners can improve long-term retention when they space practice over multiple days. For instance, in recent experiments on adults, people who were asked to recall a set of facts for 35 days benefited most when they held review sessions every 11 days (Cepeda et al 2008).
This doesn't mean that kids shouldn't practice their math skills more frequently. But it suggests that kids can retain specific math facts over the summer without resorting to daily sessions.
What about motivation? Here, we have the help of software developers. There are a number of educational computer games and apps that make practice fun.For instance, DragonBox Numbers helps children aged 4-8 develop an intuitive understanding of numbers through game play. DragonBox Algebra 5+ is aimed at children 5 and up, and "secretly" teaches children algebra concepts. Apps for more advanced students, like DragonBox Algebra 12+ are also available.
In addition, try the free app, Bedtime Math. It was tested by researchers, and found to be helpful when used by families on an everyday basis (Berkowitz et al 2016).
Research indicates that young children can improve their intuitive understanding of numbers by playing certain board games. And such intuitions really matter: When kids lack a strong grasp of "how much" different numbers really represent, they perform more poorly in school (Mazzococo 2011). You can read more about it (and get instructions for making your own game) here.In addition, young school children can practice their basic addition and subtraction facts by playing the simple -- but excellent -- board game, "Sum Swamp." The game is a race, with players rolling dice and performing quick calculations to determine the number of spaces they must move. You can check the current price by clicking here to view the Sum Swamp game on Amazon.
Finally, I've found a number of books for children that help kids visualize mathematical concepts, and some include instructions for mathematical activities and games. See my recommendations in this Parenting Science guide.
Experiments demonstrate that we can hone strong spatial skills through practice, and better spatial reasoning leads to enhanced performance in math and science.
For example, when young school children were asked to practice mental rotation tasks – tasks that required them to predict how two geometrical shapes would look when stuck together – these kids went on to show improvements in their ability to solve basic algebra problems (Cheng and Mix 2012).
For ideas on how to encourage spatial play, see my evidence-based articles about tangrams, blocks, and other activities for boosting a child's spatial skills.
Kids learn more from museum experiences when they engage in hands-on activities. They also benefit when parents ask them to interpret what they see.
For example, in one study, kids visiting an anthropological exhibit learned more when their parents asked them open-ended questions about the artifacts they encountered (Jant et al 2014).
What do you think this tool was used for? What do you think it is made of? How do you think it would feel to sleep on this mat?
In another museum-learning study, preschoolers showed more spontaneous focus on numbers and counting after their parents had engaged them in playful number talk and counting games (Braham et al 2018). How many dinosaurs are here? Let's count together.
And after you leave? Help kids consolidate what they've learned by asking kids what they remember.
As I explain elsewhere, one of the best ways is to encourage children to explain what they have learned. And a recent study reports links between parent-child conversations and retention: The more kids talked about a science lesson with their parents, the more they remembered later on (Leitchman et al 2017).
To learn more about the fascinating effects of explaining things to others, read my article, "How kids learn math and science: Stimulate learning by asking kids to explain."
Research suggests that summer camps in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) can stoke children's interest in STEM fields.
What makes a great program? Hands-on, activity-based STEM activities -- like building, coding, robotics, or science labs -- that allow kids to tinker and solve problems themselves. This isn't the time for lectures and passively sitting by. Kids learn by doing (Roberts et al 2018).
To find an informal summer learning program near you, look online, and try contacting local schools, public libraries, museums, and zoos. Can't afford to pay? Don't assume you'll have to. Ask about free and low-cost programs.
The nonprofit organization Reading Rockets offers materials for a 5-day DIY program called "River Rangers," which helps kids learn about everything from the formation of rivers, to riverine ecosystems and the management of human drinking water. You can access these free materials, and other ideas to battle summer learning loss, here.
In addition, the 4-H Society offers instructions for several hands-on STEM activities that you can create with easy-to-find materials. Can you create a parachute that can land an egg without breaking it? A simple robot made with a paper cup, some wire, and a battery? A rubber-band powered car? Check the activities out here.
And if you're looking for ideas for preschool science activities, see these Parenting Science pages.
This is my personal suggestion, but it's consistent with experiments: Personal curiosity is a major driver of learning (Gruber et al 2014).
How many students have been bored by school, and then--one lucky day--they discovered an academic subject they were really passionate about?
Such discoveries can change lives, but many people never make them. When I was a child, extended summer breaks were a chance to indulge my curiosity about all sorts of things that never made it into the standard school curriculum--paleontology, astronomy, rock collecting, the geology of Mars, the search for extraterrestrial life, ancient history.
How would I have turned out without these opportunities? I don't know, but I'm sure I would have been worse off. And for some kids, these extracurricular investigations lead to big things. Astrophysicist Neil deGrasse Tyson traces the beginnings of his career to childhood experiences with a telescope.
Looking for some interesting topics? Here are some suggestions:
Animal behavior. David Attenborough has produced many outstanding educational programs about animals. These, combined with reading and hands-on activities can help your child develop a lifelong interest in biology. What to do? Get kids outside, and show them how to locate wildlife. See these Parenting Science tracking activities for more information, and don't forget to let your child photograph what he or she sees. Nature photography doesn't just help kids document their discoveries. It also encourages them to learn stealth and patience!
Computer programming. Researchers at MIT have developed a visual programming environment called Scratch. It permits kids to learn computer programming concepts -- and create coded projects -- even before they learn to read. Best of all, it's free to use. All you need is a computer with an internet connection.
Dinosaurs. See my guide to resources about paleontology and dinosaurs for kids.
Space exploration. In additional to finding books on the subject, check out the local planetarium and Voyage to the Planets and Beyond (2004)
, a fun BBC production that presents realistic (but imaginary) imaginary
missions to Mars and other destinations. If you’ve seen Walking with
Dinosaurs, the approach is similar. In addition, don’t miss NASA’s
interactive website for kids, including their
pages about Mars.
More ideas. Check out my recommended children's books.
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Content of "Preventing Summer Learning Loss" last modified 6/2019
Image of boys on beach by Sherif Salama / flickr
Image of girl reading by Tre Nguyen / flickr
image of child in hunter-gatherer shelter at Mitchel Museum exhibit by ocean yamaha / flickr
Image of children playing with shapes by Nicholas Wang /flickr
image of boy with albino alligator by Olaf Gradin / flickr