Tangrams for kids:
How a traditional game might improve spatial skills and boost mathematics performance
© 2009 - 2018 Gwen Dewar, Ph.D., all rights reserved
Tangrams for kids: An overlooked learning tool?
tangrams can teach kids about spatial relationships. They may help kids learn geometric terms and develop stronger problem solving skills. They might even help children perform better in general mathematics.
But what are tangrams?
A tangram is a Chinese puzzle consisting of 7 shapes (or "tans"):
- Two large right triangles
- One medium sized right triangle
- Two small right triangles
- One small square
- One parallelogram
Arranged correctly, these tangram shapes can be fitted together as a large
square, rectangle, or triangle. They can also be arranged in a variety
of complex shapes, including fanciful ones (like the rabbit illustrated
There are many ways to play with tangrams. The simplest way is to
let kids create their own complex shapes. But traditionally, tangrams
are treated as puzzles. The player is shown a target shape (in outline,
or silhouette only) and then asked to recreate that shape using the
The educational benefits of tangrams
When we play with tans, we consider the shapes from a variety of angles and perspectives. How would the shapes look if we stuck them together? Rotated them? Slid them around into different
Experiments suggest that thinking about such things --
visualizing the spatial relationships between shapes in your "mind's
eye" -- can boost our visual-spatial skills.
Research hints that it can boost mathematical skills, too. When Yi Ling Cheng and Kelly Mix asked kids, aged 6-8, to perform
a series of tangram-like mental tasks, the practice session seemed to
prime the brain for mathematics.
Kids who spent 40 minutes solving shape
rotation puzzles performed better on a pencil-and-paper math test
immediately thereafter. Compared to tangram-like activities, crossword
puzzle warm-ups had no such effect (Cheng and Mix 2012).
So there is reason to suspect that playing with tangrams
has educational benefits, and many educators recommended their use in the classroom (Bohning and
Althouse 1997; Krieger 1991; National Council of Teacher's Mathematics
2003; Clements and Sarama 2014).
in particular, playing with tangrams may help kids
- classify shapes
- develop positive feelings about geometry
- gain a stronger grasp of spatial relationships
- develop an understanding of how geometric shapes can be decomposed
- hone spatial rotation skills
- acquire a precise vocabulary for manipulating shapes (e.g., "flip," "rotate")
- learn the meaning of congruence
In addition, Tom Scovo demonstrates how tangrams can help kids calculate areas without formulas. For the details, see these
excellent activities using tangrams for kids in grades 4-6.
And as the National Council of Teacher of Mathematics points out, kids who work together on a tangram puzzle are encouraged to describe and justify their predictions.
That's a good thing because research suggests that talking about spatial concepts helps kids learn.
What will happen
if you rotate a triangle? What will happen if you flip the
When children discuss such questions, they may be more likely to improve their spatial skills and comprehension of geometry (Lee et al 2009).
So we can enhance the educational value of tangrams by talking with kids about the manipulation of shapes: How must a shape be moved in order to make it fit? (Clements and Sarama 2014).
You can make your own tangrams by following the instructions on Tom Scovo's site, or by printing and cutting out the tangram shapes below.
Alternatively, you can buy a more durable set of tangrams. Classic Tangoes
includes two plastic tangram sets and a deck of puzzle cards. But the corners are a bit sharp. For young children, you might prefer a set of foam tangrams, or even magnetic tangrams, like the ones that come in the pricey (but kid-friendly)
Tangoes Junior .
Tangrams for young children
My favorite introduction to tangrams for younger kids is the book Three pigs, one wolf, seven magic shapes by Grace Maccarone. Unfortunately, it's out of print, but you might be able to pick up a copy used.
It includes story (based on the folk tale of the three little pigs), a teaching guide, a set of tangrams to cut out, and some activities created by a math teacher.
Although the publisher recommended this book for kids in grades 1-2, the book can be enjoyed by preschoolers.
For another, fanciful story featuring tangrams, see
Grandfather Tang's Story (Dragonfly Books)
Virtual tangrams for kids
You might wonder if computer games are as educational as playing with
real, physical tangrams. The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics
(NCTM) recommends both.
Computer games may offer special benefits
because "the computer environment is likely to encourage (kids) to think
about how they need to manipulate the tangram pieces rather than
approach the task mainly by trial and error."
Read more and try out PBS's free online tangram game here, as well as this online game by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.
References: Tangrams for kids
Bohning G and Althouse JK. 1997. Using tangrams to teach geometry to
young children. Early childhood education journal. 24(4): 239-242.
Cheng Y-L and Mix KS. 2012. Spatial training improves children's
mathematics ability. Journal of Cognition and Development. Published
Clements D and Sarama J. 2014. Learning and teaching early math: The learning trajectories
approach. New York, NY: Routledge.
Kriegler S. 1991. The Tangram: It's More than an Ancient Puzzle. Arithmetic Teacher 38(9) 38-43.
Lee J, Lee JO, and Collins C. 2009. Enhancing children's spatial sense using tangrams. Childhood Education 86(2):92-94.
National Council of Teacher’s Mathematics. 2003. Developing
geometry understandings and spatial skills through puzzlelike problems
with tangrams: Tangram challenges. www.nctm.org.
Content of "Tangrams for kids" last modified 7/2018